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2019

Novel use of laser technology reveals interactions between roots, soil organisms
September 18, 2019
UNIVERSITY PARK, Pa. — A novel use of a custom laser system — developed in Penn State’s College of Agricultural Sciences eight years ago — allows researchers to see how soil organisms affect plant roots. The discovery has implications for future breeding of more resilient and productive crops, according to an international team of scientists. “This research shows how we can use laser ablation tomography — often referred to as LAT — to visualize the anatomy of roots from several crop species, and see how soil organisms such as fungi, herbivorous nematodes and insects interact with these roots in three dimensions,” said Jonathan Lynch, distinguished professor of plant science.
'Planting green' cover-crop strategy may help farmers deal with wet springs
July 2, 2019
UNIVERSITY PARK, Pa. — Allowing cover crops to grow two weeks longer in the spring and planting corn and soybean crops into them before termination is a strategy that may help no-till farmers deal with wet springs, according to Penn State researchers. The approach — known as planting green — could help no-till farmers counter a range of problems they must deal with during wet springs like the ones that have occurred this year and last year. These problems include soil erosion, nutrient losses, soils holding too much moisture and causing a delay in the planting of main crops, and main-crop damage from slugs.
Stearns receives Educator of the Year award from national landscape association
April 24, 2019
UNIVERSITY PARK, Pa. — Dan Stearns, J. Franklin Styer Professor Emeritus, who served as the inaugural professor and program coordinator of the landscape contracting program in Penn State’s College of Agricultural Sciences, recently was named Outstanding Educator of the Year by the National Association of Landscape Professionals during its annual conference in Fort Collins, Colorado. The organization represents an industry of nearly 1 million landscape, lawn care, irrigation and tree care experts. The award recognizes educators who have been passionate supporters and tireless ambassadors of the landscape industry; who have contributed time, energy and enthusiasm to their programs; and who show dedication to the education of future industry leaders. “Dan Stearns exemplifies what it means to be an engaged and committed educator,” said Erin Connolly, professor and head of the college’s Department of Plant Science. “He gave his best to students, instilling in them the knowledge and confidence needed to make their mark in the industry. Those students — and Penn State — have been enriched by his talents and genuine interest in elevating others.”
Insect-deterring sorghum compounds may be eco-friendly pesticide
April 5, 2019
UNIVERSITY PARK, Pa. — Compounds produced by sorghum plants to defend against insect feeding could be isolated, synthesized and used as a targeted, nontoxic insect deterrent, according to researchers who studied plant-insect interactions that included field, greenhouse and laboratory components. The researchers examined the role of sorghum chemicals called flavonoids —specifically 3-deoxyflavonoid and 3-deoxyanthocyanidins — in providing resistance against the corn leaf aphid, a tiny blue-green insect that sucks sap from plants. To defend against pests like the aphids, sorghum has evolved defenses that includes biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, including flavonoids to poison the pests.
Manure application changes with winter crop can cut nitrogen loss, boost profits
April 3, 2019
UNIVERSITY PARK, Pa. — Dairy farmers in the Northeast can improve water quality and boost the profitability of their operations by changing the timing and method of applying manure to their fields in the fall, along with planting rye as a cover crop between corn crops — or by double-cropping rye and corn, according to Penn State researchers. In a two-year study at Penn State's Russell E. Larson Agricultural Research Center, researchers compared the effects on nitrogen conservation of three field-management options that could be implemented by farmers, to determine whether new strategies would yield environmental and crop-production benefits.
Unraveling of 58-year-old corn gene mystery may have plant-breeding implications
January 18, 2019
UNIVERSITY PARK, Pa. — In discovering a mutant gene that "turns on" another gene responsible for the red pigments sometimes seen in corn, researchers solved an almost six-decades-old mystery with a finding that may have implications for plant breeding in the future. The culmination of more than 20 years of work, the effort started when, in 1997, Surinder Chopra, professor of maize genetics at Penn State, received seeds from a mutant line of corn. At the time, Chopra was a postdoctoral scholar at Iowa State University, and he brought the research with him when he joined the Penn State faculty in 2000.