Jonathan Lynch, Ph.D.

Jonathan Lynch, Ph.D.

  • University Distinguished Professor
221 Tyson Bldg.
University Park, PA 16802

Areas of Expertise

  • crop ecophysiology
  • plant adaptation to abiotic stress
  • plant genetics
  • simulation modeling

Websites

Education

  • 1987 Ph.D. University of California, Davis (Plant Physiology)
  • 1982 M.Sc. University of California, Davis (Plant Physiology)
  • 1980 B.Sc. University of California, Berkeley (Soils and Plant Nutrition)

Research Interests

My research focuses on understanding the basis of plant adaptation to drought and low soil fertility. This encompasses physiology, genetics, and ecology, centered on organismic processes. Our current work focuses on understanding root phenes that can be used to breed crops with better acquisition of water, nitrogen, and phosphorus. For a more detailed description of my interests, please see the overview given on the root lab page. 

Appointments

2020 -            Chair, Huck Center for Root and Rhizosphere Biology

2020 -            coDirector, Graduate Program in Agricultural and Ecological Plant Science

2018 -            Director, Graduate Program in Horticulture

2016-2019      Advisory Council, Foundation for Food and Agriculture Research

2015-2020      Chair in Root Biology, University of Nottingham, UK   

2013-2019      Director, Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Climate Resilient Beans

2012-2015      Guest Researcher, Forshungszentrum Jülich, Germany

1991-              Asst./Assoc./ Full/Distinguished Professor, Penn State University

1988-1991       Senior Staff, CIAT, Colombia

1984-1987       Postgraduate Researcher, University of California, Davis

Honors and Awards

Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science

Dennis Hoagland Award, American Society of Plant Biologists, 2018

Woolhouse Lecturer, Society for Experimental Biology, 2017

Dundee Medal, 2015

Alex and Jessie C. Black Award for Excellence in Agricultural Research, 2005

Howard P Taylor lectureship in root biology research, 2005

Fellow, Crop Science Society of America, 2004

China Friendship Award, the highest recognition awarded foreigners by the government of China, received from Premier Zhu Rongji, Beijing 1999.

Excellent Educational Work Prize, Guangdong Province, China, 1996

Distinguished Professor, Mexican Academy of Sciences, 2005

Nonresident Fellow, Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation

Publications

Location: root architecture structures rhizosphere microbial associations
Journal of Exeprimental Botany, Galindo-Castaneda, T, Hartmann, M, Lynch, Jonathan, 2024

A role for fermentation in aerobic conditions as revealed by computational analysis of maize root metabolism during growth by cell elongation
Plant Journal, Hunt, Hilary, Leape, Stefan, Sidhu, Jagdeep Singh, Ajmera, Ishan, Lynch, Jonathan P., Ratcliffe, R. George, Sweetlove, Lee J., 2023

Large root cortical cells and reduced cortical cell files improve growth under suboptimal nitrogen in silico
Plant Physiology, Lopez-Valdivia, Ivan, Yang, Xiyu, Lynch, Jonathan P., 2023

RootSlice—A novel functional-structural model for root anatomical phenotypes
Plant, Cell and Environment, Sidhu, Jagdeep Singh, Ajmera, Ishan, Arya, Sankalp, Lynch, Jonathan P., 2023

Transcription factor bHLH121 regulates root cortical aerenchyma formation in maize
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Schneider, Hannah M., Lor, Vai S., Zhang, Xia, Saengwilai, Patompong, Hanlon, Meredith T., Klein, Stephanie P., Davis, Jayne L., Borkar, Aditi N., Depew, Cody L., Bennett, Malcolm J., Kaeppler, Shawn M., Brown, Kathleen M., Bhosale, Rahul, Lynch, Jonathan P., 2023

Root phenotypes for improved nitrogen capture
Plant and Soil, Lynch, Jonathan P., Galindo-Castañeda, Tania, Schneider, Hannah M., Sidhu, Jagdeep Singh, Rangarajan, Harini, York, Larry M., 2023

Cortical parenchyma wall width (CPW) regulates root metabolic cost and maize performance under suboptimal water availability
BioRxiv, Sidhu, J, Lopez-Valdivia, I, Strock, C, Schneider, H, Lynch, Jonathan, 2023

Influence of root cortical aerenchyma on the rhizosphere microbiome of field-grown maize
BioRxiv, Galindo-Castaneda, T, Rojas, C, Karaoz, U, Brodie, E, Brown, K, Lynch, Jonathan, 2023

Modeling root loss reveals impacts on nutrient uptake and crop development
Plant Physiology, Schäfer, Ernst D., Owen, Markus R., Band, Leah R., Farcot, Etienne, Bennett, Malcolm J., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2022

In silico evidence for the utility of parsimonious root phenotypes for improved vegetative growth and carbon sequestration under drought
Frontiers in Plant Science, Schäfer, Ernst D., Ajmera, Ishan, Farcot, Etienne, Owen, Markus R., Band, Leah R., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2022

Erratum to: Relative utility of agronomic, phenological, and morphological traits for assessing genotype-by-environment interaction in maize inbreds (Crop Science, (2020), 60, 1, (62-81), 10.1002/csc2.20035)
Crop Science, Falcon, Celeste M., Kaeppler, Shawn M., Spalding, Edgar P., Miller, Nathan D., Haase, Nicholas, AlKhalifah, Naser, Bohn, Martin, Buckler, Edward S., Campbell, Darwin A., Ciampitti, Ignacio, Coffey, Lisa, Edwards, Jode, Ertl, David, Flint-Garcia, Sherry, Gore, Michael A., Graham, Christopher, Hirsch, Candice N., Holland, James B., Jarquín, Diego, Knoll, Joseph, Lauter, Nick, Lawrence-Dill, Carolyn J., Lee, Elizabeth C., Lorenz, Aaron, Lynch, Jonathan P., Murray, Seth C., Nelson, Rebecca, Romay, M. Cinta, Rocheford, Torbert, Schnable, Patrick S., Scully, Brian, Smith, Margaret, Springer, Nathan, Tuinstra, Mitchell R., Walton, Renee, Weldekidan, Teclemariam, Wisser, Randall J., Xu, Wenwei, de Leon, Natalia, 2022

Comparative phenomics of root architecture and anatomy in Phaseolus species
Crop Science, Massas, Anica Sandra F., Strock, Christopher F., Schneider, Hannah M., Debouck, Daniel G., Brown, Kathleen M., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2022

Response of Southeast Asian rice root architecture and anatomy phenotypes to drought stress
Frontiers in Plant Science, Siangliw, Jonaliza L., Thunnom, Burin, Natividad, Mignon A., Quintana, Marinell R., Chebotarov, Dmytro, McNally, Kenneth L., Lynch, Jonathan P., Brown, Kathleen Marie, Henry, Amelia, 2022

Spatiotemporal responses of rice root architecture and anatomy to drought
Plant and Soil, Fonta, Jenna E., Giri, Jitender, Vejchasarn, Phanchita, Lynch, Jonathan P., Brown, Kathleen M., 2022

Root and xylem anatomy varies with root length, root order, soil depth and environment in intermediate wheatgrass (Kernza®) and alfalfa
Annals of Botany, Clément, Corentin, Schneider, Hannah M., Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin, Lynch, Jonathan P., Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian, 2022

Many paths to one goal: Identifying integrated rice root phenotypes for diverse drought environments
Frontiers in Plant Science, Fonta, Jenna E., Vejchasarn, Phanchita, Henry, Amelia, Lynch, Jonathan P., Brown, Kathleen Marie, 2022

Root angle is controlled by EGT1 in cereal crops employing an antigravitropic mechanism
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Fusi, Riccardo, Rosignoli, Serena, Lou, Haoyu, Sangiorgi, Giuseppe, Bovina, Riccardo, Pattem, Jacob K., Borkar, Aditi N., Lombardi, Marco, Forestan, Cristian, Milner, Sara G., Davis, Jayne L., Lale, Aneesh, Kirschner, Gwendolyn K., Swarup, Ranjan, Tassinari, Alberto, Pandey, Bipin K., York, Larry M., Atkinson, Brian S., Sturrock, Craig J., Mooney, Sacha J., Hochholdinger, Frank, Tucker, Matthew R., Himmelbach, Axel, Stein, Nils, Mascher, Martin, Nagel, Kerstin A., De Gara, Laura, Simmonds, James, Uauy, Cristobal, Tuberosa, Roberto, Lynch, Jonathan P., Yakubov, Gleb E., Bennett, Malcolm J., Bhosale, Rahul, Salvi, Silvio, 2022

Correction to: Root anatomical phenotypes related to growth under low nitrogen availability in maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids (Plant and Soil, (2022), 10.1007/s11104-022-05331-6)
Plant and Soil, Jia, Xucun, Wu, Guangjun, Strock, Christopher, Li, Liang, Dong, Shuting, Zhang, Jiwang, Zhao, Bin, Lynch, Jonathan P., Liu, Peng, 2022

Anatomics: High-throughput phenotyping of plant anatomy
Trends in Plant Science, Strock, Christopher F., Schneider, Hannah M., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2022

Correction to: Root anatomy and soil resource capture (Plant and Soil, (2021), 466, 1-2, (21-63), 10.1007/s11104-021-05010-y)
Plant and Soil, Lynch, Jonathan P., Strock, Christopher F., Schneider, Hannah M., Sidhu, Jagdeep Singh, Ajmera, Ishan, Galindo-Castaneda, Tania, Klein, Stephanie P., Hanlon, Meredith T., 2022

Developmental Morphology and Anatomy Shed Light on Both Parallel and Convergent Evolution of the Umbellate Inflorescence in Monocots, Underlain by a New Variant of Metatopy
Frontiers in Plant Science, Martínez-Gómez, Jesús, Atluri, Tara A.M., Rose, Irving Jason, Holliday, Aaliyah J., Strock, Christopher F., Lynch, Jonathan P., Miller, William B., Stevenson, Dennis Wm, Specht, Chelsea D., 2022

Gradual domestication of root traits in the earliest maize from Tehuacan
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Lopez-Valdivia, Ivan, Perkins, Alden C., Schneider, Hannah M., Vallebueno-Estrada, Miguel, Burridge, James D., Gonzalez-Orozco, Eduardo, Montufar, Aurora, Montiel, Rafael, Lynch, Jonathan P., Vielle-Calzada, Jean Philippe, 2022

Improving Soil Resource Uptake by Plants Through Capitalizing on Synergies Between Root Architecture and Anatomy and Root-Associated Microorganisms
Frontiers in Plant Science, Galindo-Castañeda, Tania, Lynch, Jonathan P., Six, Johan, Hartmann, Martin, 2022

Root angle in maize influences nitrogen capture and is regulated by calcineurin B-like protein (CBL)-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 15 (ZmCIPK15)
Plant, Cell and Environment, Schneider, Hannah M., Lor, Vai Sa Nee, Hanlon, Meredith T., Perkins, Alden, Kaeppler, Shawn M., Borkar, Aditi N., Bhosale, Rahul, Zhang, Xia, Rodriguez, Jonas, Bucksch, Alexander, Bennett, Malcolm J., Brown, Kathleen M., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2022

Future roots for future soils
Plant, Cell and Environment, Lynch, Jonathan P., Mooney, Sacha J., Strock, Christopher F., Schneider, Hannah M., 2022

Integrated root phenotypes for improved rice performance under low nitrogen availability
Plant, Cell and Environment, Ajmera, Ishan, Henry, Amelia, Radanielson, Ando M., Klein, Stephanie P., Ianevski, Aleksandr, Bennett, Malcolm J., Band, Leah R., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2022

Theoretical evidence that root penetration ability interacts with soil compaction regimes to affect nitrate capture
Annals of Botany, Strock, Christopher F., Rangarajan, Harini, Black, Christopher K., Schäfer, Ernst D., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2022

Theoretical evidence that root penetration ability interacts with soil compaction regimes to affect nitrate capture
Annals of Botany, Strock, C, Rangarajan, H, Black, C, Schafer, E, Lynch, J, 2022

Harnessing root architecture to address global challenges
Plant Journal, Lynch, Jonathan P., 2022

Phenotyping cowpea for seedling root architecture reveals root phenes important for breeding phosphorus efficient varieties
Crop Science, Mohammed, Saba B., Burridge, James D., Ishiyaku, Mohammad F., Boukar, Ousmane, Lynch, Jonathan P., 2022

Soil penetration by maize roots is negatively related to ethylene-induced thickening
Plant, Cell and Environment, Vanhees, Dorien J., Schneider, Hannah M., Sidhu, Jagdeep Singh, Loades, Kenneth W., Bengough, A. Glyn, Bennett, Malcolm J., Brown, K, Pandey, Bipin K., Mooney, S, Brown, Kathleen M., Mooney, Sacha J., Lynch, Jonathan, 2022

Multi-objective optimization of root phenotypes for nutrient capture using evolutionary algorithms
Plant Journal, Rangarajan, Harini, Hadka, David, Reed, Patrick, Lynch, J, 2022

Root anatomical phenotypes related to growth under low nitrogen availability in maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids
Plant and Soil, Wu, Guang-Jun, Jia, Xucun, Jia, Xucun, Wu, Guangjun, Strock, Christopher, Dong, Shu-ting, Li, Liang, Dong, Shuting, Zhang, Ji-Wang, Zhang, Jiwang, Zhao, Bin, Lynch, J, Zhao, Bin, Liu, Peng, Liu, Peng, 2022

RootSlice: functional structural modeling of root anatomy
BioRxiv, Sidhu, J, Ajmera, I, Arya, S, Lynch, J, 2022

Integrated root phenotypes for low nitrogen tolerance in rice
Plant Cell Environment, Ajmera, I, Henry, A, Radanielson, A, Klein, S, Ianevski, A, Bennett, M, Band, L, Lynch, J, 2022

Simulating Crop Root Systems Using OpenSimRoot
Plant Systems Biology, Schäfer, Ernst D., Owen, Markus R., Postma, Johannes A., Kuppe, Christian, Black, Christopher K., Lynch, J, 2021

Harnessing root architecture to address global challenges
The Plant Journal, Lynch, Jonathan, 2021

DIRT/3D: 3D root phenotyping for field-grown maize (Zea mays)
Plant Physiology, Liu, Suxing, Sherard Barrow, Carlos, Hanlon, Meredith, Lynch, Jonathan P., Bucksch, Alexander, 2021

Root anatomy and soil resource capture
Plant and Soil, Lynch, Jonathan P., Strock, Christopher F., Schneider, Hannah M., Sidhu, Jagdeep Singh, Ajmera, Ishan, Galindo-Castañeda, Tania, Klein, Stephanie P., Hanlon, Meredith T., 2021

Root traits for improving N acquisition efficiency, Schneider, Hannah M., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2021

Root hair phenotypes influence nitrogen acquisition in maize
Annals of Botany, Saengwilai, P, Chimungu, J, Rangarajan, H, Strock, C, Salungyu, J, Lynch, J, 2021

Root biology in the 21st century: Challenges and opportunities
Annals of Botany, Lynch, Jonathan P., 2021

Foliar elemental microprobe data and leaf anatomical traits consistent with drought tolerance in Eucalyptus largiflorens (Myrtaceae)
Australian Journal of Botany, Fernando, Denise R., Lynch, Jonathan P., Hanlon, Meredith T., Marshall, Alan T., 2021

The ability of maize roots to grow through compacted soil is not dependent on the amount of roots formed
Field Crops Research, Vanhees, Dorien J., Loades, Kenneth W., Bengough, A. Glyn, Mooney, Sacha J., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2021

Utility of Climatic Information via Combining Ability Models to Improve Genomic Prediction for Yield Within the Genomes to Fields Maize Project
Frontiers in Genetics, Jarquin, Diego, de Leon, Natalia, Romay, Cinta, Bohn, Martin, Buckler, Edward S., Ciampitti, Ignacio, Edwards, Jode, Ertl, David, Flint-Garcia, Sherry, Gore, Michael A., Graham, Christopher, Hirsch, Candice N., Holland, James B., Hooker, David, Kaeppler, Shawn M., Knoll, Joseph, Lee, Elizabeth C., Lawrence-Dill, Carolyn J., Lynch, Jonathan P., Moose, Stephen P., Murray, Seth C., Nelson, Rebecca, Rocheford, Torbert, Schnable, James C., Schnable, Patrick S., Smith, Margaret, Springer, Nathan, Thomison, Peter, Tuinstra, Mitch, Wisser, Randall J., Xu, Wenwei, Yu, Jianming, Lorenz, Aaron, 2021

Multiseriate cortical sclerenchyma enhance root penetration in compacted soils
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Schneider, Hannah M., Strock, Christopher F., Hanlon, Meredith T., Vanhees, Dorien J., Perkins, Alden C., Ajmera, Ishan B., Sidhu, Jagdeep Singh, Mooney, Sacha J., Brown, Kathleen M., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2021

Three-dimensional imaging reveals that positions of cyst nematode feeding sites relative to xylem vessels differ between susceptible and resistant wheat
Plant Cell Reports, Levin, Kara A., Tucker, Matthew R., Strock, Christopher F., Lynch, Jonathan P., Mather, Diane E., 2021

The importance of dominance and genotype-by-environment interactions on grain yield variation in a large-scale public cooperative maize experiment
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics, Rogers, Anna R., Dunne, Jeffrey C., Romay, Cinta, Bohn, Martin, Buckler, Edward S., Ciampitti, Ignacio A., Edwards, Jode, Ertl, David, Flint-Garcia, Sherry, Gore, Michael A., Graham, Christopher, Hirsch, Candice N., Hood, Elizabeth, Hooker, David C., Knoll, Joseph, Lee, Elizabeth C., Lorenz, Aaron, Lynch, Jonathan P., McKay, John, Moose, Stephen P., Murray, Seth C., Nelson, Rebecca, Rocheford, Torbert, Schnable, James C., Schnable, Patrick S., Sekhon, Rajandeep, Singh, Maninder, Smith, Margaret, Springer, Nathan, Thelen, Kurt, Thomison, Peter, Thompson, Addie, Tuinstra, Mitch, Wallace, Jason, Wisser, Randall J., Xu, Wenwei, Gilmour, A. R., Kaeppler, Shawn M., De Leon, Natalia, Holland, James B., 2021

Plant roots sense soil compaction through restricted ethylene diffusion
Science, Pandey, Bipin K., Huang, Guoqiang, Bhosale, Rahul, Hartman, Sjon, Sturrock, Craig J., Jose, Lottie, Martin, Olivier C., Karady, Michal, Voesenek, Laurentius A.C.J., Ljung, Karin, Lynch, Jonathan P., Brown, Kathleen M., Whalley, William R., Mooney, Sacha J., Zhang, Dabing, Bennett, Malcolm J., 2021

Silencing the alarm: an insect salivary enzyme closes plant stomata and inhibits volatile release
New Phytologist, Lin, Po-An, Chen, Yintong, Chaverra-Rodriguez, Duverney, Zainuddin, N, Heu, Chan, Zainuddin, Nursyafiqi, Sidhu, J, Peiffer, M, Sidhu, Jagdeep, Peiffer, Michelle, Tan, C, Tan, Ching-Wen, Helms, A, Helms, Anjel, Kim, D, Kim, Donghun, Ali, J, Ali, None, Ali, Jared, Rasgon, J, Rasgon, Jason, Lynch, Jonathan, Anderson, C, Felton, G, Anderson, Charles T., Felton, Gary W., 2021

A comparative analysis of quantitative metrics of root architecture
Plant Phenomics, Rangarajan, Harini, Lynch, Jonathan P., 2021

Stomata-mediated interactions between plants, herbivores, and the environment
Trends in Plant Science, Lin, Po-An, Chen, Yintong, Ponce, Gabriela, Acevedo, Flor, Lynch, Jonathan P., Anderson, Charles, Ali, Jared G., Felton, Gary W., 2021

Genetic control of root architectural traits in KDML105 chromosome segment substitution lines under well-watered and drought stress conditions
Plant Production Science, Ruangsiri, Mathurada, Vejchasarn, Phanchita, Saengwilai, Patompong, Lynch, J, Bennett, Malcolm J., Brown, Kathleen M., Chuttteang, C, Chutteang, Cattleya, Boonruangrod, Ratri, Shearman, Jeremy, Toojinda, Theerayut, Siangliw, Jonaliza L., 2021

Root phenotypic diversity in common bean reveals contrasting strategies for soil resource acquisition among gene pools and races
Crop Science, Jochua, Celestina N., Strock, Christopher F., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2020

Comparative phenomics of annual grain legume root architecture
Crop Science, Burridge, James D., Rangarajan, Harini, Lynch, Jonathan P., 2020

Spatio-Temporal Variation in Water Uptake in Seminal and Nodal Root Systems of Barley Plants Grown in Soil
Frontiers in Plant Science, Schneider, Hannah M., Postma, Johannes A., Kochs, Johannes, Pflugfelder, Daniel, Lynch, Jonathan P., van Dusschoten, Dagmar, 2020

Root secondary growth: an unexplored component of soil resource acquisition
Annals of Botany, Strock, Christopher F., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2020

Root anatomical traits contribute to deeper rooting of maize under compacted field conditions
Journal of Experimental Botany, Vanhees, Dorien J., Loades, Kenneth W., Glyn Bengough, A., Mooney, Sacha J., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2020

Multiscale computational models can guide experimentation and targeted measurements for crop improvement
Plant Journal, Benes, Bedrich, Guan, Kaiyu, Lang, Meagan, Long, Stephen P., Lynch, Jonathan P., Marshall-Colón, Amy, Peng, Bin, Schnable, James, Sweetlove, Lee J., Turk, Matthew J., 2020

Multiple integrated root phenotypes are associated with improved drought tolerance
Plant Physiology, Klein, Stephanie P., Schneider, Hannah M., Perkins, Alden C., Brown, Kathleen M., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2020

Genetic control of root architectural plasticity in maize
Journal of Experimental Botany, Schneider, Hannah, Klein, Stephanie P., Hanlon, Meredith T., Nord, Eric A., Kaeppler, Shawn, Brown, Kathleen, Warry, Andrew, Bhosale, Rahul, Lynch, Jonathan P., Dodd, Ian, 2020

Should Root Plasticity Be a Crop Breeding Target?
Frontiers in Plant Science, Schneider, Hannah M., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2020

The hidden beauty of roots, Ajmera, Ishan, Band, Leah, Lynch, Jonathan, 2020

Genetic components of root architecture and anatomy adjustments to water-deficit stress in spring barley
Plant, Cell and Environment, Oyiga, Benedict C., Palczak, Janina, Wojciechowski, Tobias, Lynch, Jonathan P., Naz, Ali A., Léon, Jens, Ballvora, Agim, 2020

Genetic control of root anatomical plasticity in maize
Plant Genome, Schneider, Hannah M., Klein, Stephanie P., Hanlon, Meredith T., Kaeppler, Shawn, Brown, Kathleen M., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2020

Maize genomes to fields (G2F): 2014-2017 field seasons: Genotype, phenotype, climatic, soil, and inbred ear image datasets
BMC Research Notes, McFarland, Bridget A., Alkhalifah, Naser, Bohn, Martin, Bubert, Jessica, Buckler, Edward S., Ciampitti, Ignacio, Edwards, Jode, Ertl, David, Gage, Joseph L., Falcon, Celeste M., Flint-Garcia, Sherry, Gore, Michael A., Graham, Christopher, Hirsch, Candice N., Holland, James B., Hood, Elizabeth, Hooker, David, Jarquin, Diego, Kaeppler, Shawn M., Knoll, Joseph, Kruger, Greg, Lauter, Nick, Lee, Elizabeth C., Lima, Dayane C., Lorenz, Aaron, Lynch, Jonathan P., McKay, John, Miller, Nathan D., Moose, Stephen P., Murray, Seth C., Nelson, Rebecca, Poudyal, Christina, Rocheford, Torbert, Rodriguez, Oscar, Romay, Maria Cinta, Schnable, James C., Schnable, Patrick S., Scully, Brian, Sekhon, Rajandeep, Silverstein, Kevin, Singh, Maninder, Smith, Margaret, Spalding, Edgar P., Springer, Nathan, Thelen, Kurt, Thomison, Peter, Tuinstra, Mitchell, Wallace, Jason, Walls, Ramona, Wills, David, Wisser, Randall J., Xu, Wenwei, Yeh, Cheng Ting, De Leon, Natalia, 2020

Relative utility of agronomic, phenological, and morphological traits for assessing genotype-by-environment interaction in maize inbreds
Crop Science, Falcon, Celeste M., Kaeppler, Shawn M., Spalding, Edgar P., Miller, Nathan D., Haase, Nicholas, AlKhalifah, Naser, Bohn, Martin, Buckler, Edward S., Campbell, Darwin A., Ciampitti, Ignacio, Coffey, Lisa, Edwards, Jode, Ertl, David, Flint-Garcia, Sherry, Gore, Michael A., Graham, Christopher, Hirsch, Candice N., Holland, James B., Jarquín, Diego, Knoll, Joseph, Lauter, Nick, Lawrence-Dill, Carolyn J., Lee, Elizabeth C., Lorenz, Aaron, Lynch, Jonathan P., Murray, Seth C., Nelson, Rebecca, Romay, M. Cinta, Rocheford, Torbert, Schnable, Patrick S., Scully, Brian, Smith, Margaret, Springer, Nathan, Tuinstra, Mitchell R., Walton, Renee, Weldekidan, Teclemariam, Wisser, Randall J., Xu, Wenwei, de Leon, Natalia, 2020

An analysis of soil coring strategies to estimate root depth.
Plant Phenomics, Burridge, J, Black, C, Nord, E, Postma, J, Sidhu, J, York, L, Lynch, Jonathan, 2020

An analysis of soil coring strategies to estimate root depth in maize (zea mays) and common bean (phaseolus vulgaris)
Plant Phenomics, Burridge, James D., Black, Christopher K., Nord, Eric A., Postma, Johannes A., Sidhu, Jagdeep S., York, Larry M., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2020

A case study on the efficacy of root phenotypic selection for edaphic stress tolerance in low-input agriculture: Common bean breeding in Mozambique
Field Crops Research, Burridge, James D., Findeis, Jill L., Jochua, Celestina N., Miguel, Magalhaes A., Mubichi-Kut, Fridah M., Quinhentos, Maria L., Xerinda, Soares A., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2019

Shovelomics root traits assessed on the EURoot maize panel are highly heritable across environments but show low genotype-by-nitrogen interaction
Euphytica, Le Marié, Chantal A., York, Larry M., Strigens, Alexandre, Malosetti, Marcos, Camp, Karl Heinz, Giuliani, Silvia, Lynch, Jonathan P., Hund, Andreas, 2019

Root cortical anatomy is associated with differential pathogenic and symbiotic fungal colonization in maize
Plant, Cell and Environment, Galindo-Castañeda, Tania, Galindo-Castenada, Tania, Galindo-Castaneda, Tania, Brown, Kathleen, Kuldau, Gretchen, Roth, Gregory, Wenner, Nancy G., Ray, Swayamjit, Swayamnit, Ray, Schneider, Hannah, Lynch, Jonathan P., 2019

Genotypic variation and nitrogen stress effects on root anatomy in maize are node specific
Journal of Experimental Botany, Yang, Jennifer, Schneider, Hannah M., Brown, Kathleen, Lynch, Jonathan P., 2019

Laser ablation tomography for visualization of root colonization by edaphic organisms
Journal of Experimental Botany, Strock, Christopher, Schneider, Hannah M., Galindo-Castañeda, Tania, Hall, Benjamin T., Van Gansbeke, Bart, Mather, Diane E., Roth, Mitchell G., Chilvers, Martin I., Guo, Xiangrong, Brown, Kathleen, Lynch, Jonathan P., 2019

Seedling root architecture and its relationship with seed yield across diverse environments in Phaseolus vulgaris
Field Crops Research, Strock, Christopher F., Burridge, James, Massas, Anica S.F., Beaver, James, Beebe, Stephen, Camilo, Samuel A., Fourie, Deidré, Jochua, Celestina, Miguel, Magalhaes, Miklas, Phillip N., Mndolwa, Eninka, Nchimbi-Msolla, Susan, Polania, Jose, Porch, Timothy G., Rosas, Juan Carlos, Trapp, Jennifer J., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2019

Single and multi-trait GWAS identify genetic factors associated with production traits in common bean under abiotic stress environments
G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics, Oladzad, Atena, Porch, Timothy, Rosas, Juan Carlos, Moghaddam, Samira Mafi, Beaver, James, Beebe, Steve E., Burridge, Jimmy, Jochua, Celestina Nhagupana, Miguel, Magalhaes Amade, Miklas, Phillip N., Ratz, Bodo, White, Jeffery W., Lynch, Jonathan, McClean, Phillip E., 2019

Parental effects and provisioning under drought and low phosphorus stress in common bean
Food and Energy Security, Lorts, Claire, Lynch, Jonathan P., Brown, Kathleen, 2019

Genetic components of root architecture and anatomy adjustments to water-deficit stress in spring barley
PLANT CELL AND ENVIRONMENT, Oyiga, Benedict, Palczak, Janina, Wojciechowski, Tobias, Lynch, Jonathan, Naz, Ali, Leon, Jens, Ballvora, Agim, 2019

RootRobot: A field-based platform for maize root system architecture phenotyping, Shi, Xiaomeng, Choi, Daeun, Heinemann, Paul, Hanlon, Molly, Lynch, Jonathan, 2019

A mechanistic framework for auxin dependent Arabidopsis root hair elongation to low external phosphate
Nature Communications, Bhosale, Rahul, Giri, Jitender, Pandey, Bipin K., Giehl, Ricardo F.H., Hartmann, Anja, Traini, Richard, Truskina, Jekaterina, Leftley, Nicola, Hanlon, Meredith, Swarup, Kamal, Rashed, Afaf, Voß, Ute, Alonso, Jose, Stepanova, Anna, Yun, Jeonga, Ljung, Karin, Brown, Kathleen M., Lynch, Jonathan P., Dolan, Liam, Vernoux, Teva, Bishopp, Anthony, Wells, Darren, Von Wirén, Nicolaus, Bennett, Malcolm J., Swarup, Ranjan, 2018

Rice auxin influx carrier OsAUX1 facilitates root hair elongation in response to low external phosphate
Nature Communications, Giri, Jitender, Bhosale, Rahul, Huang, Guoqiang, Pandey, Bipin K., Parker, Helen, Zappala, Susan, Yang, Jing, Dievart, Anne, Bureau, Charlotte, Ljung, Karin, Price, Adam, Rose, Terry, Larrieu, Antoine, Mairhofer, Stefan, Sturrock, Craig J., White, Philip, Dupuy, Lionel, Hawkesford, Malcolm, Perin, Christophe, Liang, Wanqi, Peret, Benjamin, Hodgman, Charlie T., Lynch, Jonathan, Wissuwa, Matthias, Zhang, Dabing, Pridmore, Tony, Mooney, Sacha J., Guiderdoni, Emmanuel, Swarup, Ranjan, Bennett, Malcolm J., 2018

The Xerobranching Response Represses Lateral Root Formation When Roots Are Not in Contact with Water
Current Biology, Orman-Ligeza, Beata, Morris, Emily C., Parizot, Boris, Lavigne, Tristan, Babé, Aurelie, Ligeza, Aleksander, Klein, Stephanie, Sturrock, Craig, Xuan, Wei, Novák, Ondřey, Ljung, Karin, Fernandez, Maria A., Rodriguez, Pedro L., Dodd, Ian C., De Smet, Ive, Chaumont, Francois, Batoko, Henri, Périlleux, Claire, Lynch, Jonathan P., Bennett, Malcolm J., Beeckman, Tom, Draye, Xavier, 2018

Inundation of a floodplain lake woodlands system: nutritional profiling and benefit to mature Eucalyptus largiflorens (Black Box) trees
Wetlands Ecology and Management, Fernando, Denise R., Lynch, Jonathan P., Reichman, Suzie M., Clark, Gary J., Miller, Rebecca E., Doody, Tanya M., 2018

Co-optimization of axial root phenotypes for nitrogen and phosphorus acquisition in common bean
Annals of Botany, Rangarajan, Harini, Postma, Johannes A., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2018

Maize Genomes to Fields: 2014 and 2015 field season genotype, phenotype, environment, and inbred ear image datasets
BMC Research Notes, Alkhalifah, Naser, Campbell, Darwin A., Falcon, Celeste M., Gardiner, Jack M., Miller, Nathan D., Romay, Maria Cinta, Walls, Ramona, Walton, Renee, Yeh, Cheng Ting, Bohn, Martin, Bubert, Jessica, Buckler, Edward S., Ciampitti, Ignacio, Flint-Garcia, Sherry, Gore, Michael A., Graham, Christopher, Hirsch, Candice, Holland, James B., Hooker, David, Kaeppler, Shawn, Knoll, Joseph, Lauter, Nick, Lee, Elizabeth C., Lorenz, Aaron, Lynch, Jonathan P., Moose, Stephen P., Murray, Seth C., Nelson, Rebecca, Rocheford, Torbert, Rodriguez, Oscar, Schnable, James C., Scully, Brian, Smith, Margaret, Springer, Nathan, Thomison, Peter, Tuinstra, Mitchell, Wisser, Randall J., Xu, Wenwei, Ertl, David, Schnable, Patrick S., De Leon, Natalia, Spalding, Edgar P., Edwards, Jode, Lawrence-Dill, Carolyn J., 2018

Reduced root cortical burden improves growth and grain yield under low phosphorus availability in maize
Plant, Cell and Environment, Galindo-Castañeda, Tania, Brown, Kathleen M., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2018

Rightsizing root phenotypes for drought resistance
Journal of Experimental Botany, Lynch, Jonathan P., 2018

Erratum: Author Correction: A mechanistic framework for auxin dependent Arabidopsis root hair elongation to low external phosphate (Nature communications (2018) 9 1 (1409))
Nature Communications, Bhosale, Rahul, Giri, Jitender, Pandey, Bipin K., Giehl, Ricardo F.H., Hartmann, Anja, Traini, Richard, Truskina, Jekaterina, Leftley, Nicola, Hanlon, Meredith, Swarup, Kamal, Rashed, Afaf, Voß, Ute, Alonso, Jose, Stepanova, Anna, Yun, Jeonga, Ljung, Karin, Brown, Kathleen M., Lynch, Jonathan P., Dolan, Liam, Vernoux, Teva, Bishopp, Anthony, Wells, Darren, von Wirén, Nicolaus, Bennett, Malcolm J., Swarup, Ranjan, 2018

Erratum: Author Correction: Rice auxin influx carrier OsAUX1 facilitates root hair elongation in response to low external phosphate (Nature communications (2018) 9 1 (1408))
Nature Communications, Giri, Jitender, Bhosale, Rahul, Huang, Guoqiang, Pandey, Bipin K., Parker, Helen, Zappala, Susan, Yang, Jing, Dievart, Anne, Bureau, Charlotte, Ljung, Karin, Price, Adam, Rose, Terry, Larrieu, Antoine, Mairhofer, Stefan, Sturrock, Craig J., White, Philip, Dupuy, Lionel, Hawkesford, Malcolm, Perin, Christophe, Liang, Wanqi, Peret, Benjamin, Hodgman, Charlie T., Lynch, Jonathan, Wissuwa, Matthias, Zhang, Dabing, Pridmore, Tony, Mooney, Sacha J., Guiderdoni, Emmanuel, Swarup, Ranjan, Bennett, Malcolm J., 2018

Buffered delivery of phosphate to Arabidopsis alters responses to low phosphate
Journal of Experimental Botany, Hanlon, Meredith T., Ray, Swayamjit, Saengwilai, Patompong, Luthe, Dawn, Lynch, Jonathan P., Brown, Kathleen M., 2018

Functional implications of root cortical senescence for soil resource capture
Plant and Soil, Schneider, Hannah M., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2018

Greater lateral root branching density in maize improves phosphorus acquisition from low phosphorus soil
Journal of Experimental Botany, Jia, Xucun, Liu, Peng, Lynch, Jonathan P., 2018

Large crown root number improves topsoil foraging and phosphorus acquisition
Plant Physiology, Sun, Baoru, Gao, Yingzhi, Lynch, Jonathan P., 2018

Reduction in root secondary growth as a strategy for phosphorus acquisition
Plant Physiology, Strock, Christopher F., De La Riva, Laurie Morrow, Lynch, Jonathan P., 2018

Ethylene modulates root cortical senescence in barley
Annals of Botany, Schneider, Hannah M., Wojciechowski, Tobias, Postma, Johannes A., Brown, Kathleen M., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2018

Ethylene mediates root cortical senescence formation in barley
Annals of Botany, Schneider, Hannah, Wojciechowski, Tobias, Postma, Johannes, Brown, Kathleen, Lynch, Jonathan, 2018

The effect of artificial selection on phenotypic plasticity in maize
Nature Communications, Gage, Joseph L., Jarquin, Diego, Romay, Cinta, Lorenz, Aaron, Buckler, Edward S., Kaeppler, Shawn, Alkhalifah, Naser, Bohn, Martin, Campbell, Darwin A., Edwards, Jode, Ertl, David, Flint-Garcia, Sherry, Gardiner, Jack, Good, Byron, Hirsch, Candice N., Holland, Jim, Hooker, David C., Knoll, Joseph, Kolkman, Judith, Kruger, Greg, Lauter, Nick, Lawrence-Dill, Carolyn J., Lee, Elizabeth, Lynch, Jonathan, Murray, Seth C., Nelson, Rebecca, Petzoldt, Jane, Rocheford, Torbert, Schnable, James, Schnable, Patrick S., Scully, Brian, Smith, Margaret, Springer, Nathan M., Srinivasan, Srikant, Walton, Renee, Weldekidan, Teclemariam, Wisser, Randall J., Xu, Wenwei, Yu, Jianming, De Leon, Natalia, 2017

Shaping 3D Root System Architecture
Current Biology, Morris, Emily C., Griffiths, Marcus, Golebiowska, Agata, Mairhofer, Stefan, Burr-Hersey, Jasmine, Goh, Tatsuaki, von Wangenheim, Daniel, Atkinson, Brian, Sturrock, Craig J., Lynch, Jonathan P., Vissenberg, Kris, Ritz, Karl, Wells, Darren M., Mooney, Sacha J., Bennett, Malcolm J., 2017

Root cortical senescence improves growth under suboptimal availability of N, P, and K
Plant Physiology, Schneider, Hannah M., Postma, Johannes A., Wojciechowski, Tobias, Kuppe, Christian, Lynch, Jonathan P., 2017

Root cortical senescence decreases root respiration, nutrient content and radial water and nutrient transport in barley
Plant, Cell and Environment, Schneider, Hannah M., Wojciechowski, Tobias, Postma, Johannes A., Brown, Kathleen M., Lücke, Andreas, Zeisler, Viktoria, Schreiber, Lukas, Lynch, Jonathan P., 2017

OpenSimRoot: widening the scope and application of root architectural models
New Phytologist, Postma, Johannes A., Kuppe, Christian, Owen, Markus R., Mellor, Nathan, Griffiths, Marcus, Bennett, Malcolm J., Lynch, Jonathan P., Watt, Michelle, 2017

Morphological plant modeling: Unleashing geometric and topological potential within the plant sciences
Frontiers in Plant Science, Bucksch, Alexander, Atta-Boateng, Acheampong, Azihou, Akomian F., Battogtokh, Dorjsuren, Baumgartner, Aly, Binder, Brad M., Braybrook, Siobhan A., Chang, Cynthia, Coneva, Viktoirya, DeWitt, Thomas J., Fletcher, Alexander G., Gehan, Malia A., Diaz-Martinez, Diego Hernan, Hong, Lilan, Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S., Klein, Laura L., Leiboff, Samuel, Li, Mao, Lynch, Jonathan P., Maizel, Alexis, Maloof, Julin N., Cody Markelz, R. J., Martinez, Ciera C., Miller, Laura A., Mio, Washington, Palubicki, Wojtek, Poorter, Hendrik, Pradal, Christophe, Price, Charles A., Puttonen, Eetu, Reese, John B., Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén, Spalding, Edgar P., Sparks, Erin E., Topp, Christopher N., Williams, Joseph H., Chitwood, Daniel H., 2017

Crops in silico: Generating virtual crops using an integrative and multi-scale modeling platform
Frontiers in Plant Science, Marshall-Colon, Amy, Long, Stephen P., Allen, Douglas K., Allen, Gabrielle, Beard, Daniel A., Benes, Bedrich, Von Caemmerer, Susanne, Christensen, A. J., Cox, Donna J., Hart, John C., Hirst, Peter M., Kannan, Kavya, Katz, Daniel S., Lynch, Jonathan P., Millar, Andrew J., Panneerselvam, Balaji, Price, Nathan D., Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw, Raila, David, Shekar, Rachel G., Shrivastava, Stuti, Shukla, Diwakar, Srinivasan, Venkatraman, Stitt, Mark, Turk, Matthew J., Voit, Eberhard O., Wang, Yu, Yin, Xinyou, Zhu, Xin Guang, 2017

Genome-wide association mapping and agronomic impact of cowpea root architecture
Theoretical And Applied Genetics, Burridge, James D., Schneider, Hannah M., Huynh, Bao Lam, Roberts, Philip A., Bucksch, Alexander, Lynch, Jonathan P., 2017

Functional implications of root cortical senescence for soil resource capture
Plant Soil, Schneider, Hannah, Lynch, Jonathan, 2017

NPK deficiency modulates oxidative stress in plants, Zhang, Zhiyong, Lynch, Jonathan P., Zhang, Baohong, Wang, Qinglian, 2017

Genetic Variability in Phosphorus Responses of Rice Root Phenotypes
Rice, Vejchasarn, Phanchita, Lynch, Jonathan P., Brown, Kathleen M., 2016

Temperature and light drive manganese accumulation and stress in crops across three major plant families
Environmental and Experimental Botany, Fernando, Denise R., Moroni, Sergio J., Scott, Brendan J., Conyers, Mark K., Lynch, Jonathan P., Marshall, Alan T., 2016

Impact of axial root growth angles on nitrogen acquisition in maize depends on environmental conditions
Annals of Botany, Dathe, A., Postma, J. A., Postma-Blaauw, M. B., Lynch, J. P., 2016

Reduced crown root number improves water acquisition under water deficit stress in maize (Zea mays L.)
Journal of Experimental Botany, Gao, Yingzhi, Lynch, Jonathan P., 2016

Plants in silico: Why, why now and what?-an integrative platform for plant systems biology research
Plant, Cell and Environment, Zhu, Xin Guang, Lynch, Jonathan P., Lebauer, David S., Millar, Andrew J., Stitt, Mark, Long, Stephen P., 2016

Digital imaging of root traits (DIRT): A high-throughput computing and collaboration platform for field-based root phenomics
Plant Methods, Das, Abhiram, Schneider, Hannah, Burridge, James, Ascanio, Ana Karine Martinez, Wojciechowski, Tobias, Topp, Christopher N., Lynch, Jonathan P., Weitz, Joshua S., Bucksch, Alexander, 2015

Towards modeling the function of root traits for enhancing water acquisition by crops, Postma, Jouke A., Jaramillo, Raul E., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2015

Manganese phytotoxicity: New light on an old problem
Annals of Botany, Fernando, Denise R., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2015

The hidden half of crop yields
Nature Plants, Bishopp, Anthony, Lynch, Jonathan P., 2015

Reduced lateral root branching density improves drought tolerance in maize
Plant Physiology, Zhan, Ai, Schneider, Hannah, Lynch, Jonathan P., 2015

Root anatomical phenes predict root penetration ability and biomechanical properties in maize (Zea Mays)
Journal of Experimental Botany, Chimungu, Joseph G., Loades, Kenneth W., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2015

Phene synergism between root hair length and basal root growth angle for phosphorus Acquisition
Plant Physiology, Miguel, Magalhaes Amade, Postma, Johannes Auke, Lynch, Jonathan Paul, 2015

Evolution of US maize (Zea mays L.) root architectural and anatomical phenes over the past 100 years corresponds to increased tolerance of nitrogen stress
Journal of Experimental Botany, York, Larry M., Galindo-Castañeda, Tania, Schussler, Jeffrey R., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2015

Reduced frequency of lateral root branching improves N capture from low-N soils in maize
Journal of Experimental Botany, Zhan, Ai, Lynch, Jonathan P., 2015

Opportunities and challenges in the subsoil: Pathways to deeper rooted crops
Journal of Experimental Botany, Lynch, Jonathan P., Wojciechowski, Tobias, 2015

Next generation shovelomics: set up a tent and REST
Plant and Soil, Colombi, Tino, Kirchgessner, Norbert, Le Marié, Chantal Andrée, York, Larry Matthew, Lynch, Jonathan P., Hund, Andreas, 2015

Response to elevated CO2 in the temperate C3 grass Festuca arundinaceae across a wide range of soils
Frontiers in Plant Science, Nord, Eric A., Jaramillo, Raúl E., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2015

Utility of root cortical aerenchyma under water limited conditions in tropical maize (Zea mays L.)
Field Crops Research, Chimungu, Joseph G., Maliro, Moses F.A., Nalivata, Patson C., Kanyama-Phiri, George, Brown, Kathleen M., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2015

QTL mapping and phenotypic variation of root anatomical traits in maize (Zea mays L.)
Theoretical And Applied Genetics, Burton, Amy L., Johnson, James, Foerster, Jillian, Hanlon, Meredith T., Kaeppler, Shawn M., Lynch, Jonathan P., Brown, Kathleen M., 2015

Modeling resource interactions under multiple edaphic stresses, Dathe, Annette, Postma, Johannes A., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2015

Large root cortical cell size improves drought tolerance in maize
Plant Physiology, Chimungu, Joseph G., Brown, Kathleen M., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2014

Root foraging elicits niche complementarity-dependent yield advantage in the ancient 'three sisters' (maize/bean/squash) polyculture
Annals of Botany, Zhang, Chaochun, Postma, Johannes A., York, Larry M., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2014

Reduced root cortical cell file number improves drought tolerance in maize
Plant Physiology, Chimungu, Joseph G., Brown, Kathleen M., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2014

The optimal lateral root branching density for maize depends on nitrogen and phosphorus availability
Plant Physiology, Postma, Johannes Auke, Dathe, Annette, Lynch, Jonathan Paul, 2014

Low crown root number enhances nitrogen acquisition from low-nitrogen soils in maize
Plant Physiology, Saengwilai, Patompong, Tian, Xiaoli, Lynch, Jonathan Paul, 2014

Image-based high-throughput field phenotyping of crop roots
Plant Physiology, Bucksch, Alexander, Burridge, James, York, Larry M., Das, Abhiram, Nord, Eric, Weitz, Joshua S., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2014

Root traits for improving nitrogen acquisition efficiency, Chimungu, Joseph G., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2014

Root cortical aerenchyma inhibits radial nutrient transport in maize (Zea mays)
Annals of Botany, Hu, Bo, Henry, Amelia, Brown, Kathleen M., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2014

QTL mapping and phenotypic variation for root architectural traits in maize (Zea mays L.)
Theoretical And Applied Genetics, Burton, Amy L., Johnson, James M., Foerster, Jillian M., Hirsch, Candice N., Buell, C. R., Hanlon, Meredith T., Kaeppler, Shawn M., Brown, Kathleen M., Lynch, Jonathan P., 2014

Root cortical aerenchyma enhances nitrogen acquisition from low-nitrogen soils in maize
Plant Physiology, Saengwilai, Patompong, Nord, Eric A., Chimungu, Joseph G., Brown, Kathleen M., Lynch, Jonathan Paul, 2014

Root anatomical phenes associated with water acquisition from drying soil: Targets for crop improvement
Journal of Experimental Botany, Lynch, Jonathan P., Chimungu, Joseph G., Brown, Kathleen M., 2014

Field phenotyping of soybean roots for drought stress tolerance
Agronomy, Fenta, Berhanu A., Beebe, Stephen E., Kunert, Karl J., Burridge, James D., Barlow, Kathryn M., Lynch, Jonathan P., Foyer, Christine H., 2014