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<tt xmlns:tts="http://www.w3.org/2006/04/ttaf1#styling" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2006/04/ttaf1">
      <p begin="00:00:00.06" dur="00:00:02.68">Hello, and welcome to the Sportsturf Scoop.</p>
      <p begin="00:00:02.93" dur="00:00:01.16">My name is Tom Serensits</p>
      <p begin="00:00:04.09" dur="00:00:00.79">and I am the manager of</p>
      <p begin="00:00:04.89" dur="00:00:02.20">Penn State’s Center for Sports Surface Research.</p>
      <p begin="00:00:07.37" dur="00:00:01.58">Today the topic that we will be discussing</p>
      <p begin="00:00:08.96" dur="00:00:01.84">is surface temperature of synthetic turf.</p>
      <p begin="00:00:12.78" dur="00:00:01.50">While we have certainly come a long way</p>
      <p begin="00:00:14.32" dur="00:00:01.99">since the first generation of synthetic turf,</p>
      <p begin="00:00:16.31" dur="00:00:01.05">which was installed in</p>
      <p begin="00:00:17.37" dur="00:00:02.24">the Houston Astrodome in the late 1960s,</p>
      <p begin="00:00:19.65" dur="00:00:01.76">the problem that still remains is</p>
      <p begin="00:00:21.41" dur="00:00:01.86">surface temperature of these surfaces.</p>
      <p begin="00:00:23.61" dur="00:00:01.57">During clear sunny conditions,</p>
      <p begin="00:00:25.22" dur="00:00:01.78">these surfaces can get extremely hot</p>
      <p begin="00:00:27.06" dur="00:00:02.19">and pose potential dangers to athletes.</p>
      <p begin="00:00:31.58" dur="00:00:02.28">While high surface temperatures are receiving</p>
      <p begin="00:00:33.86" dur="00:00:01.41">considerable attention in recent years,</p>
      <p begin="00:00:35.35" dur="00:00:01.64">it is not really a new problem.</p>
      <p begin="00:00:37.26" dur="00:00:01.41">If we go back to the 1970s</p>
      <p begin="00:00:38.71" dur="00:00:00.96">and look at some research</p>
      <p begin="00:00:39.67" dur="00:00:01.48">that was done on traditional,</p>
      <p begin="00:00:41.15" dur="00:00:01.40">non-infilled AstroTurf,</p>
      <p begin="00:00:43.10" dur="00:00:01.36">we see that surface temperatures</p>
      <p begin="00:00:44.46" dur="00:00:02.73">were up to 50 degrees higher than natural grass.</p>
      <p begin="00:00:47.52" dur="00:00:00.97">So not a new problem that is</p>
      <p begin="00:00:48.51" dur="00:00:02.43">just associated with today’s infilled synthetic turf –</p>
      <p begin="00:00:51.35" dur="00:00:00.74">this has been a problem</p>
      <p begin="00:00:52.11" dur="00:00:02.37">since the beginning of synthetic turf use.</p>
      <p begin="00:00:56.42" dur="00:00:01.71">So why did we not hear more about the issue</p>
      <p begin="00:00:58.18" dur="00:00:01.71">of surface heat on synthetic turf</p>
      <p begin="00:00:59.89" dur="00:00:02.75">with previous generations of synthetic turf.</p>
      <p begin="00:01:02.65" dur="00:00:01.76">The answer to that question is really</p>
      <p begin="00:01:04.41" dur="00:00:01.80">the widespread usage of synthetic turf</p>
      <p begin="00:01:06.22" dur="00:00:01.14">really didn’t come about</p>
      <p begin="00:01:07.36" dur="00:00:02.09">until we see today’ infilled surfaces.</p>
      <p begin="00:01:10.16" dur="00:00:02.09">Generally, older generations of synthetic turf</p>
      <p begin="00:01:12.26" dur="00:00:02.67">were limited to professional and collegiate stadiums.</p>
      <p begin="00:01:15.49" dur="00:00:01.50">Certainly if we asked the center fielder</p>
      <p begin="00:01:16.99" dur="00:00:00.85">for the Philadelphia Phillies</p>
      <p begin="00:01:17.85" dur="00:00:01.76">playing on the AstroTurf</p>
      <p begin="00:01:19.61" dur="00:00:02.44">at Veterans Stadium back in the 1980s,</p>
      <p begin="00:01:22.55" dur="00:00:01.62">he would certainly say that surface</p>
      <p begin="00:01:24.17" dur="00:00:02.10">did get hot on a hot sunny day.</p>
      <p begin="00:01:26.70" dur="00:00:01.89">But again, this was limited to professional</p>
      <p begin="00:01:28.60" dur="00:00:01.77">and collegiate athletes primarily –</p>
      <p begin="00:01:30.38" dur="00:00:01.71">we didn’t see these fields being used</p>
      <p begin="00:01:32.10" dur="00:00:02.48">to a great extent at the municipal level</p>
      <p begin="00:01:34.58" dur="00:00:03.19">like we do with today’s third generation synthetic turf.</p>
      <p begin="00:01:39.13" dur="00:00:02.06">Of course as we see more and more of these fields</p>
      <p begin="00:01:41.20" dur="00:00:01.52">being used at the municipal level,</p>
      <p begin="00:01:42.76" dur="00:00:01.00">at the town level,</p>
      <p begin="00:01:43.77" dur="00:00:01.89">we see more and more children using these fields</p>
      <p begin="00:01:45.67" dur="00:00:02.46">and children are less able to adapt</p>
      <p begin="00:01:48.16" dur="00:00:01.28">to changes in temperature.</p>
      <p begin="00:01:49.44" dur="00:00:00.93">So as they use these fields</p>
      <p begin="00:01:50.37" dur="00:00:02.00">in the peak heating hours of the day,</p>
      <p begin="00:01:52.38" dur="00:00:02.08">during the summer months, we see a potential –</p>
      <p begin="00:01:54.71" dur="00:00:01.34">or a higher potential –</p>
      <p begin="00:01:56.05" dur="00:00:02.75">with these field users for heat related problems</p>
      <p begin="00:01:58.81" dur="00:00:01.29">or heat related illnesses.</p>
      <p begin="00:02:00.11" dur="00:00:02.42">So an increased focus now on this issue</p>
      <p begin="00:02:02.54" dur="00:00:03.30">of synthetic turf being hot in the summer months</p>
      <p begin="00:02:05.85" dur="00:00:03.02">and potentially dangerous for field users.</p>
      <p begin="00:02:10.04" dur="00:00:02.18">When we say potentially dangerous for field users,</p>
      <p begin="00:02:12.23" dur="00:00:00.76">what do we mean?</p>
      <p begin="00:02:13.46" dur="00:00:01.26">Well again we can go back to some of</p>
      <p begin="00:02:14.73" dur="00:00:02.33">that research that was done in the early 1970s –</p>
      <p begin="00:02:17.07" dur="00:00:01.23">and this was research done</p>
      <p begin="00:02:18.31" dur="00:00:02.56">by researchers here at Penn State University.</p>
      <p begin="00:02:21.69" dur="00:00:01.60">What these researchers did was they looked</p>
      <p begin="00:02:23.30" dur="00:00:02.82">at how does high surface temperature affect field users.</p>
      <p begin="00:02:26.12" dur="00:00:01.97">Again this was specifically on</p>
      <p begin="00:02:28.10" dur="00:00:01.59">first generation synthetic turf –</p>
      <p begin="00:02:29.69" dur="00:00:02.07">in this case it was an AstroTurf system.</p>
      <p begin="00:02:32.51" dur="00:00:02.12">Basically, these researchers put heat sensors</p>
      <p begin="00:02:34.66" dur="00:00:02.08">in the shoes of research subjects.</p>
      <p begin="00:02:37.70" dur="00:00:01.20">They found that the heat transferred</p>
      <p begin="00:02:38.91" dur="00:00:01.67">from the surface to the sole of the shoe</p>
      <p begin="00:02:41.18" dur="00:00:01.16">and because of that there was</p>
      <p begin="00:02:42.34" dur="00:00:02.04">a greater chance for heat related health issues –</p>
      <p begin="00:02:44.82" dur="00:00:01.62">anything ranging from discomfort</p>
      <p begin="00:02:46.44" dur="00:00:01.60">and dehydration all the way to</p>
      <p begin="00:02:48.05" dur="00:00:01.53">something severe such as heat stroke.</p>
      <p begin="00:02:50.05" dur="00:00:01.76">So as that heat is transferred</p>
      <p begin="00:02:51.81" dur="00:00:01.46">from the surface to the sole of the foot,</p>
      <p begin="00:02:53.33" dur="00:00:01.31">that is when we start to see</p>
      <p begin="00:02:54.64" dur="00:00:01.63">potential health problems</p>
      <p begin="00:02:56.28" dur="00:00:02.18">associated with playing on these surfaces</p>
      <p begin="00:02:58.47" dur="00:00:00.67">when they are hot.</p>
      <p begin="00:03:00.82" dur="00:00:01.13">So here we can see a picture</p>
      <p begin="00:03:01.95" dur="00:00:01.53">of that research that was done at Penn State.</p>
      <p begin="00:03:04.22" dur="00:00:02.20">Not only did they test the temperature</p>
      <p begin="00:03:06.43" dur="00:00:01.59">of the surface of the synthetic turf,</p>
      <p begin="00:03:08.02" dur="00:00:01.62">they also tested the temperature</p>
      <p begin="00:03:09.71" dur="00:00:02.10">in the area above the surface –</p>
      <p begin="00:03:12.16" dur="00:00:01.39">so all of the way up to head height,</p>
      <p begin="00:03:13.70" dur="00:00:01.50">temperature readings were recorded</p>
      <p begin="00:03:15.20" dur="00:00:02.24">and certainly as the height</p>
      <p begin="00:03:17.47" dur="00:00:01.47">above the turf increased,</p>
      <p begin="00:03:19.03" dur="00:00:01.49">the temperature got cooler and cooler</p>
      <p begin="00:03:20.53" dur="00:00:01.08">and even at head height</p>
      <p begin="00:03:21.61" dur="00:00:01.73">it was not necessarily very hot.</p>
      <p begin="00:03:23.34" dur="00:00:01.23">However, as we just talked about</p>
      <p begin="00:03:24.58" dur="00:00:00.99">on the previous slide,</p>
      <p begin="00:03:25.57" dur="00:00:01.74">the main danger comes from</p>
      <p begin="00:03:27.32" dur="00:00:02.23">that hot surface and the sole of the foot</p>
      <p begin="00:03:29.56" dur="00:00:02.02">as that heat is transferred from</p>
      <p begin="00:03:31.58" dur="00:00:01.43">the surface to the sole of the foot,</p>
      <p begin="00:03:33.02" dur="00:00:01.02">that is when we see the danger –</p>
      <p begin="00:03:34.04" dur="00:00:02.44">not necessarily the temperature</p>
      <p begin="00:03:36.49" dur="00:00:01.86">at head height as you are running around</p>
      <p begin="00:03:38.36" dur="00:00:00.97">and playing on that field.</p>
      <p begin="00:03:39.34" dur="00:00:01.45">Although it is cooler at that height,</p>
      <p begin="00:03:40.79" dur="00:00:02.46">the surface temperature still plays</p>
      <p begin="00:03:43.26" dur="00:00:02.96">a major role in the overall potential</p>
      <p begin="00:03:46.22" dur="00:00:01.42">for health related problems</p>
      <p begin="00:03:47.65" dur="00:00:01.18">playing on these surfaces.</p>
      <p begin="00:03:50.34" dur="00:00:01.17">Now that we have established</p>
      <p begin="00:03:51.51" dur="00:00:01.53">that this is indeed a problem,</p>
      <p begin="00:03:53.04" dur="00:00:01.82">let’s take a look at when do these surfaces</p>
      <p begin="00:03:54.87" dur="00:00:02.29">get hot and when do we need to be concerned.</p>
      <p begin="00:03:58.20" dur="00:00:01.96">Really the conditions that these surfaces</p>
      <p begin="00:04:00.16" dur="00:00:02.40">get the hottest is when it is a sunny and clear day.</p>
      <p begin="00:04:03.18" dur="00:00:01.57">We need low humidity and no clouds –</p>
      <p begin="00:04:04.76" dur="00:00:02.08">any time we get hazy or humid conditions,</p>
      <p begin="00:04:06.84" dur="00:00:01.76">that sunlight is filtered and we don’t get</p>
      <p begin="00:04:08.60" dur="00:00:02.24">that direct sunlight coming down to the surface</p>
      <p begin="00:04:10.85" dur="00:00:01.49">and heating the surface up.</p>
      <p begin="00:04:12.82" dur="00:00:01.83">So, we need sunny and clear days</p>
      <p begin="00:04:15.30" dur="00:00:01.86">and generally the hottest time on these fields</p>
      <p begin="00:04:17.17" dur="00:00:02.65">is between noon and three o’clock in the afternoon.</p>
      <p begin="00:04:21.74" dur="00:00:01.89">So of course any time that we have cloud cover</p>
      <p begin="00:04:23.64" dur="00:00:01.62">or hazy and humid conditions,</p>
      <p begin="00:04:25.27" dur="00:00:02.28">these surfaces do not get nearly as hot</p>
      <p begin="00:04:27.55" dur="00:00:01.84">as they do during sunny and clear conditions.</p>
      <p begin="00:04:29.89" dur="00:00:01.40">In fact if you have a sunny day</p>
      <p begin="00:04:31.30" dur="00:00:01.64">and the clouds build during the afternoon</p>
      <p begin="00:04:33.69" dur="00:00:01.76">and a cloud passes in front of the sun,</p>
      <p begin="00:04:36.09" dur="00:00:01.57">the temperature of that synthetic turf</p>
      <p begin="00:04:37.67" dur="00:00:01.49">can drop quite rapidly.</p>
      <p begin="00:04:39.19" dur="00:00:01.19">So while it can heat up quickly,</p>
      <p begin="00:04:40.38" dur="00:00:02.92">it can also drop quickly as well when that sunlight</p>
      <p begin="00:04:43.46" dur="00:00:02.63">is filtered through clouds or high humidity or haze.</p>
      <p begin="00:04:47.80" dur="00:00:02.02">Certainly we have established and talked about</p>
      <p begin="00:04:49.82" dur="00:00:01.27">that these surfaces can get hot,</p>
      <p begin="00:04:51.49" dur="00:00:01.46">but how hot can they really get?</p>
      <p begin="00:04:53.55" dur="00:00:01.26">If we look at the research</p>
      <p begin="00:04:54.82" dur="00:00:01.97">we see the highest temperature that was published</p>
      <p begin="00:04:56.80" dur="00:00:03.27">in a research paper was 200 degree Fahrenheit</p>
      <p begin="00:05:00.07" dur="00:00:02.67">on a 98 degree day in Provo, Utah –</p>
      <p begin="00:05:02.75" dur="00:00:01.69">that was some work done by Williams and Pulley</p>
      <p begin="00:05:04.45" dur="00:00:04.13">in 2002 on the campus of Brigham Young University.</p>
      <p begin="00:05:09.06" dur="00:00:02.77">Now in central PA where we are located here at Penn State,</p>
      <p begin="00:05:11.83" dur="00:00:03.70">we have seen temperatures all of the way up to 175 degrees –</p>
      <p begin="00:05:15.65" dur="00:00:02.18">so certainly not to that extreme level of 200,</p>
      <p begin="00:05:17.88" dur="00:00:04.04">but certainly 175 degrees is a very hot surface</p>
      <p begin="00:05:21.92" dur="00:00:01.35">and potentially dangerous surface.</p>
      <p begin="00:05:24.13" dur="00:00:02.16">Also any temperature related research</p>
      <p begin="00:05:26.29" dur="00:00:01.26">that we have done can be found</p>
      <p begin="00:05:27.59" dur="00:00:03.95">on our Web site at ssrc.psu.edu.</p>
      <p begin="00:05:33.22" dur="00:00:01.60">So a question you may be asking yourself</p>
      <p begin="00:05:34.95" dur="00:00:01.66">is how does this compare to natural grass?</p>
      <p begin="00:05:36.67" dur="00:00:02.21">Does natural grass get to those high levels</p>
      <p begin="00:05:39.60" dur="00:00:02.96">as synthetic turf does?  If we look at the data,</p>
      <p begin="00:05:42.58" dur="00:00:03.64">generally over 100 degrees is very rare on natural grass.</p>
      <p begin="00:05:46.39" dur="00:00:02.66">More commonly we see about 75 to 95 degrees</p>
      <p begin="00:05:49.06" dur="00:00:02.67">surface temperature on natural grass on a hot day.</p>
      <p begin="00:05:52.25" dur="00:00:02.79">Generally, it is less than the air temperature itself.</p>
      <p begin="00:05:56.07" dur="00:00:03.22">Generally, synthetic turf is about 35 to 55 degrees hotter</p>
      <p begin="00:05:59.29" dur="00:00:02.41">than natural grass based on the studies that we have done.</p>
      <p begin="00:06:01.71" dur="00:00:02.99">So, certainly synthetic turf does get quite a bit hotter</p>
      <p begin="00:06:04.70" dur="00:00:01.72">than natural grass does.</p>
      <p begin="00:06:08.11" dur="00:00:02.17">When we think about why these surfaces get hot,</p>
      <p begin="00:06:11.06" dur="00:00:01.54">generally our first inclination</p>
      <p begin="00:06:12.61" dur="00:00:01.74">is to blame the crumb rubber infill –</p>
      <p begin="00:06:14.35" dur="00:00:02.33">specifically because it is black crumb rubber infill</p>
      <p begin="00:06:16.69" dur="00:00:01.27">used in many of these cases.</p>
      <p begin="00:06:18.75" dur="00:00:02.33">But again, we can go back to that 1970s research</p>
      <p begin="00:06:21.08" dur="00:00:01.34">that was done on AstroTurf</p>
      <p begin="00:06:22.80" dur="00:00:01.83">and look at the data and again we see</p>
      <p begin="00:06:24.64" dur="00:00:01.85">that those surfaces were quite a bit hotter</p>
      <p begin="00:06:26.49" dur="00:00:01.06">than natural grass as well</p>
      <p begin="00:06:27.56" dur="00:00:01.22">and they had no infill at all,</p>
      <p begin="00:06:28.78" dur="00:00:01.26">whether it would be black crumb rubber</p>
      <p begin="00:06:30.05" dur="00:00:01.40">or any other type of infill –</p>
      <p begin="00:06:31.46" dur="00:00:01.29">they were just a nylon carpet.</p>
      <p begin="00:06:33.79" dur="00:00:02.45">So traditional AstroTurf versus infilled synthetic turf –</p>
      <p begin="00:06:36.34" dur="00:00:01.69">we can see some comparisons</p>
      <p begin="00:06:38.04" dur="00:00:01.52">in terms of surface temperature –</p>
      <p begin="00:06:39.84" dur="00:00:01.33">and they really are quite similar.</p>
      <p begin="00:06:41.25" dur="00:00:03.32">Again, that information can be found</p>
      <p begin="00:06:44.57" dur="00:00:03.13">on our Web site at ssrc.psu.edu.</p>
      <p begin="00:06:49.11" dur="00:00:01.31">Let’s take a closer look</p>
      <p begin="00:06:50.42" dur="00:00:01.39">at the crumb rubber infill itself</p>
      <p begin="00:06:51.81" dur="00:00:01.53">and specifically the color.</p>
      <p begin="00:06:53.67" dur="00:00:01.60">Is it that black crumb rubber that is</p>
      <p begin="00:06:55.27" dur="00:00:01.08">the reason we are seeing</p>
      <p begin="00:06:56.36" dur="00:00:01.30">high surface temperatures?</p>
      <p begin="00:06:58.18" dur="00:00:01.37">So some research that was done</p>
      <p begin="00:06:59.56" dur="00:00:02.02">back in 2007 looked at black crumb rubber</p>
      <p begin="00:07:01.58" dur="00:00:02.52">versus black crumb rubber that was painted white.</p>
      <p begin="00:07:04.33" dur="00:00:01.97">In essence, we had black crumb rubber</p>
      <p begin="00:07:06.31" dur="00:00:00.92">versus white crumb rubber.</p>
      <p begin="00:07:08.13" dur="00:00:01.06">What the research showed was that</p>
      <p begin="00:07:09.20" dur="00:00:02.58">there were very minor temperature differences</p>
      <p begin="00:07:11.78" dur="00:00:02.00">between the white rubber and the black rubber –</p>
      <p begin="00:07:14.25" dur="00:00:02.91">just showing that it is not necessarily</p>
      <p begin="00:07:17.17" dur="00:00:01.24">the color of the crumb rubber</p>
      <p begin="00:07:18.66" dur="00:00:01.60">that is making these surfaces hot.</p>
      <p begin="00:07:22.13" dur="00:00:02.00">So taking this one step forward now,</p>
      <p begin="00:07:24.13" dur="00:00:01.81">we can start to look at the fibers.</p>
      <p begin="00:07:26.36" dur="00:00:01.85">Really, we see that the fibers themselves</p>
      <p begin="00:07:28.22" dur="00:00:02.22">are a major contributor to high surface temperature.</p>
      <p begin="00:07:30.44" dur="00:00:01.25">If we think back to the earlier,</p>
      <p begin="00:07:31.70" dur="00:00:01.69">traditional types of AstroTurf,</p>
      <p begin="00:07:33.40" dur="00:00:02.89">those surfaces again have no infill at all in them,</p>
      <p begin="00:07:36.30" dur="00:00:02.05">and they still got extremely hot.</p>
      <p begin="00:07:38.35" dur="00:00:01.33">In fact, some of our research</p>
      <p begin="00:07:39.68" dur="00:00:01.05">that we do here at Penn State</p>
      <p begin="00:07:40.74" dur="00:00:02.45">shows that in a non-irrigated situation,</p>
      <p begin="00:07:43.37" dur="00:00:02.67">those older types of synthetic turf actually</p>
      <p begin="00:07:46.07" dur="00:00:03.08">get hotter than the infilled synthetic turfs we see today.</p>
      <p begin="00:07:51.18" dur="00:00:01.80">So going back to natural grass again,</p>
      <p begin="00:07:53.00" dur="00:00:02.38">why don’t natural grass fibers</p>
      <p begin="00:07:55.38" dur="00:00:01.13">or grass blades produce heat?</p>
      <p begin="00:07:57.17" dur="00:00:01.20">Well the reason for that is that</p>
      <p begin="00:07:58.38" dur="00:00:02.68">grass leaves go through a process we call transpiration –</p>
      <p begin="00:08:01.49" dur="00:00:01.63">so grass leaves transpire –</p>
      <p begin="00:08:03.13" dur="00:00:00.84">what does that mean?</p>
      <p begin="00:08:04.48" dur="00:00:00.86">Well, they have pores</p>
      <p begin="00:08:05.35" dur="00:00:02.07">and they release water vapor to cool themselves.</p>
      <p begin="00:08:08.06" dur="00:00:02.20">So what the evaporation of the water does</p>
      <p begin="00:08:10.27" dur="00:00:01.86">is it causes cooling right at the surface</p>
      <p begin="00:08:12.14" dur="00:00:02.21">and we see those temperatures again</p>
      <p begin="00:08:14.36" dur="00:00:01.59">generally less than 100 degrees</p>
      <p begin="00:08:15.95" dur="00:00:01.66">even on an extremely hot day.</p>
      <p begin="00:08:17.90" dur="00:00:02.58">So basically the grass leaves have a system</p>
      <p begin="00:08:20.48" dur="00:00:01.16">where they release water vapor</p>
      <p begin="00:08:21.64" dur="00:00:02.08">and cool themselves and that is why</p>
      <p begin="00:08:23.73" dur="00:00:02.46">those surfaces don’t get as hot as the synthetic turf.</p>
      <p begin="00:08:28.48" dur="00:00:01.74">So we know surface temperature is an issue –</p>
      <p begin="00:08:30.36" dur="00:00:03.15">what can we do to reduce the surface temperature?</p>
      <p begin="00:08:33.62" dur="00:00:01.34">What techniques have been done</p>
      <p begin="00:08:34.96" dur="00:00:02.41">in an attempt to reduce the surface temperature?</p>
      <p begin="00:08:37.37" dur="00:00:01.00">That is what we will look at now.</p>
      <p begin="00:08:40.19" dur="00:00:01.97">Now the most widely used and popular technique</p>
      <p begin="00:08:42.17" dur="00:00:01.29">to reduce the surface temperature</p>
      <p begin="00:08:43.47" dur="00:00:01.02">is to water the field</p>
      <p begin="00:08:44.49" dur="00:00:02.64">or irrigate the field using an irrigation system.</p>
      <p begin="00:08:48.23" dur="00:00:02.08">Now watering is very effective at reducing</p>
      <p begin="00:08:50.32" dur="00:00:02.88">the surface temperature for a very short period of time.</p>
      <p begin="00:08:53.41" dur="00:00:01.65">So we can lower the surface temperature</p>
      <p begin="00:08:55.07" dur="00:00:01.09">of the field down to basically</p>
      <p begin="00:08:56.17" dur="00:00:01.20">the temperature of the water –</p>
      <p begin="00:08:57.47" dur="00:00:03.93">however, that temperature rebounds quite quickly and rapidly –</p>
      <p begin="00:09:01.67" dur="00:00:01.26">generally within 20 minutes</p>
      <p begin="00:09:02.94" dur="00:00:01.51">we start to see a rebound effect</p>
      <p begin="00:09:04.45" dur="00:00:01.48">in the surface temperature</p>
      <p begin="00:09:05.94" dur="00:00:01.93">and it gets to nearly the pre-irrigation</p>
      <p begin="00:09:07.87" dur="00:00:02.04">or pre-watering temperature very quickly.</p>
      <p begin="00:09:10.94" dur="00:00:01.63">So if we go back to that Williams and Pulley study</p>
      <p begin="00:09:12.58" dur="00:00:02.15">again done back in 2002 at BYU,</p>
      <p begin="00:09:14.78" dur="00:00:02.28">they watered a field for 30 minutes</p>
      <p begin="00:09:17.07" dur="00:00:02.24">and dropped the temperature from 174 degrees</p>
      <p begin="00:09:19.32" dur="00:00:01.83">all of the way down to 85 degrees.</p>
      <p begin="00:09:21.85" dur="00:00:01.85">However, after 5 minutes, it was already</p>
      <p begin="00:09:23.71" dur="00:00:02.82">back up to 120 degrees and after 20 minutes,</p>
      <p begin="00:09:26.53" dur="00:00:02.14">all of the way back up to 164 degrees.</p>
      <p begin="00:09:28.67" dur="00:00:02.02">So certainly a rapid rebound in temperature.</p>
      <p begin="00:09:31.34" dur="00:00:01.37">Now with this specific field,</p>
      <p begin="00:09:32.72" dur="00:00:02.14">there was also the issue of hydrophobicity.</p>
      <p begin="00:09:35.57" dur="00:00:02.53">Hydrophobicity means that it was very difficult to wet –</p>
      <p begin="00:09:38.11" dur="00:00:01.83">basically the water beaded up and rolled off.</p>
      <p begin="00:09:40.50" dur="00:00:02.78">So this is really an extreme case of how quickly</p>
      <p begin="00:09:43.28" dur="00:00:02.20">the temperature can rebound after watering.</p>
      <p begin="00:09:45.49" dur="00:00:02.15">Generally, in a non-hydrophobic field,</p>
      <p begin="00:09:47.65" dur="00:00:02.09">you can hold those cool temperatures</p>
      <p begin="00:09:49.77" dur="00:00:01.89">for a little bit longer than 5 or 20 minutes</p>
      <p begin="00:09:51.71" dur="00:00:01.70">but again once we reach about 20 minutes,</p>
      <p begin="00:09:53.44" dur="00:00:02.81">we start to see in general that temperatures</p>
      <p begin="00:09:56.25" dur="00:00:03.21">start to creep back up and say for 3 hours after watering,</p>
      <p begin="00:09:59.47" dur="00:00:02.14">generally the length of a sporting event,</p>
      <p begin="00:10:01.61" dur="00:00:02.29">we see those temperature very similar</p>
      <p begin="00:10:03.91" dur="00:00:01.97">to what they were before irrigation.</p>
      <p begin="00:10:07.67" dur="00:00:01.50">So taking a look at some of the research</p>
      <p begin="00:10:09.17" dur="00:00:02.16">that we did on our research plots here at Penn State</p>
      <p begin="00:10:11.34" dur="00:00:02.65">in terms of watering to reduce surface temperature,</p>
      <p begin="00:10:13.99" dur="00:00:02.50">we can see generally what we just talked about.</p>
      <p begin="00:10:16.53" dur="00:00:02.63">We saw temperature rebound about 20 minutes after watering.</p>
      <p begin="00:10:19.88" dur="00:00:02.50">Generally, the temperatures remained 10 degrees cooler</p>
      <p begin="00:10:22.38" dur="00:00:02.90">than non-watered turf for 3 hours after the watering event.</p>
      <p begin="00:10:25.43" dur="00:00:00.88">So 10 degrees –</p>
      <p begin="00:10:26.37" dur="00:00:03.13">whether we are talking about 170 versus 160 degrees,</p>
      <p begin="00:10:29.50" dur="00:00:03.34">these surfaces still got hot after watering.</p>
      <p begin="00:10:33.29" dur="00:00:02.47">Now interestingly, AstroTurf was cooler</p>
      <p begin="00:10:35.77" dur="00:00:01.91">for a longer period of time after watering</p>
      <p begin="00:10:37.81" dur="00:00:01.25">and the reason for that,</p>
      <p begin="00:10:39.11" dur="00:00:02.10">is that the AstroTurf had a pad underneath</p>
      <p begin="00:10:41.21" dur="00:00:01.43">and because there is no infill,</p>
      <p begin="00:10:42.65" dur="00:00:01.93">that pad is right near the surface.</p>
      <p begin="00:10:44.58" dur="00:00:01.79">Once that pad got wet from the watering,</p>
      <p begin="00:10:46.37" dur="00:00:02.56">it remained wet for a long period of time –</p>
      <p begin="00:10:49.09" dur="00:00:01.83">so what that translated into</p>
      <p begin="00:10:51.01" dur="00:00:02.79">was a cooler surface temperature for the AstroTurf</p>
      <p begin="00:10:53.80" dur="00:00:02.92">after it was watered as we followed that through</p>
      <p begin="00:10:56.74" dur="00:00:02.02">the minutes and hours after watering.</p>
      <p begin="00:10:58.78" dur="00:00:02.36">So AstroTurf – while it still had</p>
      <p begin="00:11:01.15" dur="00:00:01.51">a very similar surface temperature</p>
      <p begin="00:11:02.67" dur="00:00:02.35">before watering than today’s infilled synthetic turf,</p>
      <p begin="00:11:05.43" dur="00:00:01.36">after we water it –</p>
      <p begin="00:11:06.79" dur="00:00:01.68">because that pad is so close to the surface –</p>
      <p begin="00:11:08.55" dur="00:00:01.45">it held onto water longer</p>
      <p begin="00:11:10.01" dur="00:00:02.58">and it did produce a slightly cooler surface</p>
      <p begin="00:11:12.59" dur="00:00:02.03">than the infilled synthetic turf.</p>
      <p begin="00:11:16.97" dur="00:00:01.50">So the next thing that we wanted to look at</p>
      <p begin="00:11:18.56" dur="00:00:03.45">was adding calcined clay to the infill material itself.</p>
      <p begin="00:11:22.02" dur="00:00:01.90">Now why would we add calcined clay?</p>
      <p begin="00:11:24.36" dur="00:00:01.59">Well, if you are not familiar with calcined clay,</p>
      <p begin="00:11:25.95" dur="00:00:01.30">it’s very similar to kitty litter.</p>
      <p begin="00:11:27.69" dur="00:00:01.56">It is used on baseball infields</p>
      <p begin="00:11:29.26" dur="00:00:02.33">and what it does is traps and holds a lot of water.</p>
      <p begin="00:11:31.74" dur="00:00:02.30">So, our idea here is that if we can trap</p>
      <p begin="00:11:34.04" dur="00:00:03.03">and hold water for a longer period of time in the infill itself,</p>
      <p begin="00:11:37.08" dur="00:00:03.15">that should translate into a cooler surface.</p>
      <p begin="00:11:41.20" dur="00:00:01.99">So as part of that study back in 2008,</p>
      <p begin="00:11:43.20" dur="00:00:01.73">we added calcined clay –</p>
      <p begin="00:11:44.93" dur="00:00:03.24">about 20% - to 80% crumb rubber</p>
      <p begin="00:11:48.59" dur="00:00:02.29">and we put that out on our research plots</p>
      <p begin="00:11:50.88" dur="00:00:01.82">and did the same type of thing.</p>
      <p begin="00:11:52.81" dur="00:00:01.67">We watered the surface</p>
      <p begin="00:11:54.48" dur="00:00:01.45">and we tracked temperature over time</p>
      <p begin="00:11:55.94" dur="00:00:01.15">and what we found was</p>
      <p begin="00:11:57.09" dur="00:00:02.27">there was really no effect on surface temperature.</p>
      <p begin="00:11:59.37" dur="00:00:01.57">So our hypothesis that maybe</p>
      <p begin="00:12:00.95" dur="00:00:01.93">we could cool the surface for a longer period of time</p>
      <p begin="00:12:02.88" dur="00:00:01.56">did not prove to be true</p>
      <p begin="00:12:04.81" dur="00:00:01.99">and in fact we saw very similar results</p>
      <p begin="00:12:06.80" dur="00:00:02.19">to had we not added the calcined clay at all.</p>
      <p begin="00:12:11.44" dur="00:00:01.74">We then went back and revisited this idea.</p>
      <p begin="00:12:13.55" dur="00:00:02.41">We thought maybe we need to add more calcined clay</p>
      <p begin="00:12:15.97" dur="00:00:01.94">and use a larger calcined clay particle.</p>
      <p begin="00:12:17.91" dur="00:00:01.88">So you can see in this picture here the calcined clay</p>
      <p begin="00:12:19.80" dur="00:00:01.85">we used in this most recent study</p>
      <p begin="00:12:21.65" dur="00:00:03.09">was a lot larger particle than we used previously.</p>
      <p begin="00:12:25.36" dur="00:00:02.53">We used a 1 to 1 mixture on a volume basis</p>
      <p begin="00:12:27.90" dur="00:00:02.53">so quite a bit more calcined clay in hopes</p>
      <p begin="00:12:30.44" dur="00:00:01.36">that we would hold more water.</p>
      <p begin="00:12:32.28" dur="00:00:01.45">What we found initially was that</p>
      <p begin="00:12:33.73" dur="00:00:03.06">we were able to cool the surface after watering</p>
      <p begin="00:12:36.79" dur="00:00:01.85">by an average of 20 to 30 degrees</p>
      <p begin="00:12:38.65" dur="00:00:01.37">over that 3 hour time period.</p>
      <p begin="00:12:40.18" dur="00:00:01.33">So now we are starting to see something</p>
      <p begin="00:12:41.51" dur="00:00:03.09">significantly cooler over a long period of time</p>
      <p begin="00:12:44.60" dur="00:00:02.96">with the addition of calcined clay to the crumb rubber.</p>
      <p begin="00:12:47.57" dur="00:00:01.22">So we wanted to look at this further</p>
      <p begin="00:12:48.79" dur="00:00:02.14">to see if in fact this would be something</p>
      <p begin="00:12:50.94" dur="00:00:02.03">that could be used in the future</p>
      <p begin="00:12:52.98" dur="00:00:02.53">and be a breakthrough in terms of cooling the surface</p>
      <p begin="00:12:55.52" dur="00:00:01.27">of infilled synthetic turf.</p>
      <p begin="00:12:58.74" dur="00:00:01.22">The first thing we wanted to do</p>
      <p begin="00:12:59.96" dur="00:00:01.50">when we saw this potential benefit</p>
      <p begin="00:13:01.46" dur="00:00:02.29">was to put this into a real world situation.</p>
      <p begin="00:13:04.21" dur="00:00:02.07">If you worked with calcined clay at all,</p>
      <p begin="00:13:06.28" dur="00:00:03.03">you know that it is not the most stable material –</p>
      <p begin="00:13:09.32" dur="00:00:01.28">it can be crushed quite easily.</p>
      <p begin="00:13:10.68" dur="00:00:01.53">So we wanted to put this through a test</p>
      <p begin="00:13:12.21" dur="00:00:02.36">to see on a heavily used field –</p>
      <p begin="00:13:14.57" dur="00:00:01.97">would the calcined clay remain intact</p>
      <p begin="00:13:16.55" dur="00:00:03.32">and still provide cooling conditions through years of use.</p>
      <p begin="00:13:20.46" dur="00:00:02.14">So as part of our research equipment here at Penn State</p>
      <p begin="00:13:22.61" dur="00:00:02.60">we have this machine here called a Lisport machine,</p>
      <p begin="00:13:25.21" dur="00:00:02.84">which is used quite often in Europe for turf testing.</p>
      <p begin="00:13:28.57" dur="00:00:02.15">Basically we have 2 studded rollers that we roll</p>
      <p begin="00:13:30.72" dur="00:00:02.49">back and forth mechanically thousands of times</p>
      <p begin="00:13:33.22" dur="00:00:02.11">to simulate years of field use.</p>
      <p begin="00:13:35.99" dur="00:00:03.42">Now we did this with our 1 to 1 mix of calcined clay</p>
      <p begin="00:13:39.42" dur="00:00:02.40">and crumb rubber and in fact not surprisingly</p>
      <p begin="00:13:41.82" dur="00:00:02.63">the calcined clay tended to break down.</p>
      <p begin="00:13:44.58" dur="00:00:02.86">We can see here in this picture all of the dust</p>
      <p begin="00:13:47.45" dur="00:00:02.42">that formed as that calcined clay broke apart</p>
      <p begin="00:13:49.87" dur="00:00:02.46">with the mechanical crushing of simulated use.</p>
      <p begin="00:13:53.20" dur="00:00:03.79">Coincidently, with that breakdown of calcined clay,</p>
      <p begin="00:13:56.99" dur="00:00:01.43">we also lost the cooling effect.</p>
      <p begin="00:13:58.43" dur="00:00:01.31">We took temperature readings during</p>
      <p begin="00:13:59.74" dur="00:00:01.29">different periods of time</p>
      <p begin="00:14:01.04" dur="00:00:01.40">after a certain number of cycles</p>
      <p begin="00:14:02.45" dur="00:00:02.84">with this machine and that cooling effect was lost –</p>
      <p begin="00:14:05.33" dur="00:00:03.32">not surprisingly because those calcined clay particles</p>
      <p begin="00:14:08.66" dur="00:00:02.63">were crushed and unable to hold onto that water -</p>
      <p begin="00:14:11.30" dur="00:00:02.80">so while initially we saw some benefits</p>
      <p begin="00:14:14.10" dur="00:00:01.37">with the addition of the calcined clay</p>
      <p begin="00:14:15.48" dur="00:00:01.56">at these levels and with this material,</p>
      <p begin="00:14:17.04" dur="00:00:02.53">once we put it into a real-world situation,</p>
      <p begin="00:14:19.91" dur="00:00:01.57">that cooling effect was lost</p>
      <p begin="00:14:21.49" dur="00:00:02.37">and potential problems such as the clogging</p>
      <p begin="00:14:23.86" dur="00:00:01.14">of the backing of the carpet</p>
      <p begin="00:14:25.01" dur="00:00:03.76">when we see these calcined clay particles get crushed.</p>
      <p begin="00:14:31.19" dur="00:00:01.66">Some other attempts that we looked at</p>
      <p begin="00:14:32.86" dur="00:00:01.25">to reduce surface temperature –</p>
      <p begin="00:14:34.11" dur="00:00:01.22">we thought well maybe we could water</p>
      <p begin="00:14:35.33" dur="00:00:02.65">early in the morning and cover the turf with a tarp,</p>
      <p begin="00:14:38.13" dur="00:00:01.88">reduce the evaporation and maybe</p>
      <p begin="00:14:40.01" dur="00:00:01.73">it would hold the cooling effects</p>
      <p begin="00:14:41.75" dur="00:00:01.06">for a longer period of time</p>
      <p begin="00:14:42.81" dur="00:00:02.53">by reducing the evaporation prior to use.</p>
      <p begin="00:14:46.12" dur="00:00:02.04">Unfortunately the results of that study</p>
      <p begin="00:14:48.17" dur="00:00:01.68">were similar to our previous studies</p>
      <p begin="00:14:49.85" dur="00:00:02.54">and previous attempts to reduce the surface temperature –</p>
      <p begin="00:14:52.74" dur="00:00:01.63">there was really no effect</p>
      <p begin="00:14:54.38" dur="00:00:02.12">on the surface temperature with that tarp covering.</p>
      <p begin="00:14:58.30" dur="00:00:01.46">Here is just a picture of that research</p>
      <p begin="00:14:59.77" dur="00:00:01.96">done here at Penn State with the tarp covering.</p>
      <p begin="00:15:01.89" dur="00:00:01.74">Again, pre-dawn watering,</p>
      <p begin="00:15:03.63" dur="00:00:03.81">covering the plot with a tarp until the middle of the day,</p>
      <p begin="00:15:07.45" dur="00:00:01.16">taking that tarp off -</p>
      <p begin="00:15:08.61" dur="00:00:01.66">we saw no benefit to doing that</p>
      <p begin="00:15:10.28" dur="00:00:01.59">in terms of cooling the surface</p>
      <p begin="00:15:11.87" dur="00:00:03.96">as opposed to a normal, standard unirrigated surface.</p>
      <p begin="00:15:17.33" dur="00:00:00.88">So as you can see,</p>
      <p begin="00:15:18.21" dur="00:00:01.99">we tested a number of different techniques</p>
      <p begin="00:15:20.39" dur="00:00:02.14">to reduce the surface temperatures of these fields</p>
      <p begin="00:15:22.53" dur="00:00:01.37">really without too much success.</p>
      <p begin="00:15:24.91" dur="00:00:01.62">So recently we turned our attention</p>
      <p begin="00:15:26.53" dur="00:00:02.51">to evaluating some of these infill alternatives</p>
      <p begin="00:15:29.05" dur="00:00:01.68">and fiber technologies that are claiming</p>
      <p begin="00:15:30.73" dur="00:00:01.94">to reduce the temperatures of these fields.</p>
      <p begin="00:15:32.68" dur="00:00:02.08">To do that, we did some testing in the laboratory.</p>
      <p begin="00:15:35.86" dur="00:00:01.77">We used a 250-watt heat lamp</p>
      <p begin="00:15:37.63" dur="00:00:02.55">suspended above a sample of turf.</p>
      <p begin="00:15:40.27" dur="00:00:02.67">We correlated what we see outside</p>
      <p begin="00:15:42.94" dur="00:00:02.28">during the summer months as the sun heats up</p>
      <p begin="00:15:45.22" dur="00:00:02.89">these fields to what we did here with the heat lamp.</p>
      <p begin="00:15:48.12" dur="00:00:03.44">So really a real-world test that we brought indoors</p>
      <p begin="00:15:51.56" dur="00:00:02.80">and accurately represented what we see outdoors.</p>
      <p begin="00:15:54.72" dur="00:00:01.40">So again we have this heat lamp</p>
      <p begin="00:15:56.13" dur="00:00:01.17">suspended above the turf</p>
      <p begin="00:15:57.63" dur="00:00:01.90">we have a thermometer placed on the turf’s surface</p>
      <p begin="00:15:59.53" dur="00:00:01.59">which is connected to a data logger</p>
      <p begin="00:16:01.12" dur="00:00:02.61">so we can get really minute-by-minute temperatures</p>
      <p begin="00:16:03.74" dur="00:00:02.76">of these surfaces as they heat up.</p>
      <p begin="00:16:08.68" dur="00:00:01.94">In our first study, we began looking</p>
      <p begin="00:16:10.63" dur="00:00:02.34">at the components of the synthetic turf system.</p>
      <p begin="00:16:13.22" dur="00:00:02.90">So here, for example, we are looking at just the infills.</p>
      <p begin="00:16:16.13" dur="00:00:01.62">We get a number of different infills</p>
      <p begin="00:16:17.75" dur="00:00:02.05">and in this picture here starting in the top left</p>
      <p begin="00:16:19.80" dur="00:00:02.93">we had Ecofill, next to that is a green</p>
      <p begin="00:16:22.74" dur="00:00:01.83">or light green colored TPE,</p>
      <p begin="00:16:24.58" dur="00:00:01.53">then on the bottom row you can see</p>
      <p begin="00:16:26.11" dur="00:00:02.86">from left to right we have green colored crumb rubber,</p>
      <p begin="00:16:28.97" dur="00:00:01.22">tan colored crumb rubber,</p>
      <p begin="00:16:30.19" dur="00:00:01.61">and then of course the black crumb rubber.</p>
      <p begin="00:16:32.27" dur="00:00:01.09">So what we did was we looked at</p>
      <p begin="00:16:33.37" dur="00:00:02.47">just these infills by themselves uninstalled</p>
      <p begin="00:16:35.84" dur="00:00:01.74">into the carpet under the heat lamp</p>
      <p begin="00:16:37.59" dur="00:00:03.36">and found out how hot could these different infills get.</p>
      <p begin="00:16:42.69" dur="00:00:03.09">So here are our results from our infill testing.</p>
      <p begin="00:16:46.06" dur="00:00:01.89">Basically we put these different infill</p>
      <p begin="00:16:47.96" dur="00:00:01.37">under that heat lamp for 1 hour</p>
      <p begin="00:16:49.55" dur="00:00:02.72">and took the temperatures at that 1 hour mark</p>
      <p begin="00:16:52.28" dur="00:00:02.08">and you can see the temperature obviously</p>
      <p begin="00:16:54.36" dur="00:00:03.62">of the black crumb rubber was the hottest at 156 degrees.</p>
      <p begin="00:16:58.52" dur="00:00:02.13">Our coolest of the infills that we tested</p>
      <p begin="00:17:00.66" dur="00:00:02.44">was TPE at 136 degrees.</p>
      <p begin="00:17:03.13" dur="00:00:02.97">So 20 degrees cooler was the TPE compared</p>
      <p begin="00:17:06.10" dur="00:00:01.06">to the black crumb rubber.</p>
      <p begin="00:17:07.17" dur="00:00:01.02">Now as we look at these numbers</p>
      <p begin="00:17:08.20" dur="00:00:02.29">we see those letters after the numbers</p>
      <p begin="00:17:10.49" dur="00:00:01.80">and what those letters indicate is</p>
      <p begin="00:17:12.30" dur="00:00:01.94">the results of our statistical testing.</p>
      <p begin="00:17:14.65" dur="00:00:03.12">So basically any two numbers or temperatures –</p>
      <p begin="00:17:17.77" dur="00:00:04.00">like we see black crumb rubber at 156 and tan at 153.4 –</p>
      <p begin="00:17:22.04" dur="00:00:01.91">both of those have an “a” next to them</p>
      <p begin="00:17:23.95" dur="00:00:02.68">meaning statistically those are not different.</p>
      <p begin="00:17:26.91" dur="00:00:01.39">So we can say that black crumb rubber</p>
      <p begin="00:17:28.30" dur="00:00:03.55">and tan crumb rubber both got the same amount of heat</p>
      <p begin="00:17:31.86" dur="00:00:01.93">or produced the same temperature</p>
      <p begin="00:17:33.79" dur="00:00:01.82">from a surface perspective.</p>
      <p begin="00:17:36.17" dur="00:00:02.42">So again anything that has a different letter now –</p>
      <p begin="00:17:38.61" dur="00:00:01.19">statistically they are different.</p>
      <p begin="00:17:39.80" dur="00:00:01.36">So green crumb rubber was</p>
      <p begin="00:17:41.16" dur="00:00:02.00">in fact cooler than tan rubber.</p>
      <p begin="00:17:43.17" dur="00:00:03.14">But again, we saw approximately at 20 degree difference</p>
      <p begin="00:17:46.32" dur="00:00:03.45">from our hottest which was black to our lowest which was TPE.</p>
      <p begin="00:17:51.56" dur="00:00:02.83">Now the next step in our testing was to test the fibers.</p>
      <p begin="00:17:54.56" dur="00:00:04.15">So now we are testing fibers individually without infill installed.</p>
      <p begin="00:17:58.99" dur="00:00:02.67">So obviously looking at our table here,</p>
      <p begin="00:18:01.67" dur="00:00:01.70">different colors of carpet,</p>
      <p begin="00:18:03.37" dur="00:00:02.52">as well as a product which is Astroflect,</p>
      <p begin="00:18:05.90" dur="00:00:01.56">which is produced by AstroTurf</p>
      <p begin="00:18:07.49" dur="00:00:02.14">claiming to produce a cooler surface.</p>
      <p begin="00:18:10.04" dur="00:00:01.82">So again we placed these carpets</p>
      <p begin="00:18:11.86" dur="00:00:01.48">underneath a heat lamp,</p>
      <p begin="00:18:13.34" dur="00:00:01.63">at 1 hour we took our temperatures</p>
      <p begin="00:18:14.98" dur="00:00:01.96">and the same idea with the letters</p>
      <p begin="00:18:16.94" dur="00:00:01.83">after the temperatures as you see here</p>
      <p begin="00:18:18.78" dur="00:00:01.65">as part of our statistical testing.</p>
      <p begin="00:18:20.61" dur="00:00:03.34">You can see that the hottest color of carpet</p>
      <p begin="00:18:23.95" dur="00:00:01.37">that we tested was silver –</p>
      <p begin="00:18:25.33" dur="00:00:01.56">nearly 150 degrees all of the way down –</p>
      <p begin="00:18:26.89" dur="00:00:03.44">white was the coolest color of fibers</p>
      <p begin="00:18:30.33" dur="00:00:01.26">and that is not too surprising –</p>
      <p begin="00:18:31.60" dur="00:00:01.33">we would think that a lighter color</p>
      <p begin="00:18:32.93" dur="00:00:01.59">like white would in fact be cooler</p>
      <p begin="00:18:34.53" dur="00:00:01.62">than the darker colors.</p>
      <p begin="00:18:36.90" dur="00:00:01.48">Interestingly when we compare</p>
      <p begin="00:18:38.39" dur="00:00:02.30">all of the different green fiber types,</p>
      <p begin="00:18:40.69" dur="00:00:01.65">so we had FieldTurf Duraspine Pro,</p>
      <p begin="00:18:42.35" dur="00:00:03.75">FieldTurf Revolution, and AstroTurf’s Astroflect,</p>
      <p begin="00:18:46.11" dur="00:00:01.80">and you can see if you look at the numbers there</p>
      <p begin="00:18:47.91" dur="00:00:02.37">and the results from our statistical tests</p>
      <p begin="00:18:50.29" dur="00:00:02.26">you can see they all have the letter “c” next to them.</p>
      <p begin="00:18:53.32" dur="00:00:01.66">So when all of these green fibers</p>
      <p begin="00:18:54.99" dur="00:00:01.39">were testing without infill,</p>
      <p begin="00:18:56.38" dur="00:00:02.61">all of the green fibers statistically were the same –</p>
      <p begin="00:18:59.00" dur="00:00:01.25">none of them were cooler</p>
      <p begin="00:19:00.25" dur="00:00:01.53">or warmer than the others.</p>
      <p begin="00:19:04.32" dur="00:00:01.53">So while looking at the different components</p>
      <p begin="00:19:05.85" dur="00:00:01.28">of a synthetic turf system</p>
      <p begin="00:19:07.14" dur="00:00:01.88">is definitely worthwhile and useful –</p>
      <p begin="00:19:09.02" dur="00:00:02.22">looking at say the temperatures of infill only</p>
      <p begin="00:19:11.25" dur="00:00:02.10">and fibers only, what really matters</p>
      <p begin="00:19:13.35" dur="00:00:03.02">is how these different combinations of infill</p>
      <p begin="00:19:16.37" dur="00:00:02.04">and carpet perform as a system.</p>
      <p begin="00:19:18.56" dur="00:00:01.23">So, that is what we see here</p>
      <p begin="00:19:19.83" dur="00:00:02.66">and this is basically a little bit different type of testing –</p>
      <p begin="00:19:22.49" dur="00:00:02.55">we actually let these infill-fiber combinations</p>
      <p begin="00:19:25.04" dur="00:00:01.64">under the heat lamp for 3 hours.</p>
      <p begin="00:19:26.81" dur="00:00:02.16">So, this is 3 hours under the heat lamp</p>
      <p begin="00:19:28.97" dur="00:00:01.45">and we can see the beginnings</p>
      <p begin="00:19:30.42" dur="00:00:02.58">of this table go from gold down to green.</p>
      <p begin="00:19:33.01" dur="00:00:02.60">We have additional infill-carpet combinations</p>
      <p begin="00:19:35.61" dur="00:00:00.93">we will show on the next slide,</p>
      <p begin="00:19:36.54" dur="00:00:02.11">but the reason these are all grouped together</p>
      <p begin="00:19:38.66" dur="00:00:03.07">is if you look at the results of the statistical testing,</p>
      <p begin="00:19:41.73" dur="00:00:01.85">you can see they all have the letter “a” –</p>
      <p begin="00:19:43.58" dur="00:00:02.29">meaning they are all the same.</p>
      <p begin="00:19:45.88" dur="00:00:03.21">None of these different combinations of infill</p>
      <p begin="00:19:49.09" dur="00:00:01.76">and carpet are different from one another.</p>
      <p begin="00:19:50.96" dur="00:00:02.14">So gold, although it has 171,</p>
      <p begin="00:19:53.10" dur="00:00:02.36">statistically it is no different than</p>
      <p begin="00:19:55.47" dur="00:00:02.86">the standard green FieldTurf Duraspine Pro field</p>
      <p begin="00:19:58.33" dur="00:00:00.89">with black crumb rubber.</p>
      <p begin="00:20:01.76" dur="00:00:03.74">So now we see all 11 infill-fiber combinations</p>
      <p begin="00:20:05.50" dur="00:00:01.96">that we had in our study.</p>
      <p begin="00:20:07.82" dur="00:00:02.13">Now again the previous table went down</p>
      <p begin="00:20:09.96" dur="00:00:01.39">to the green combined</p>
      <p begin="00:20:11.35" dur="00:00:02.85">with the black crumb rubber at 165.5.</p>
      <p begin="00:20:14.59" dur="00:00:02.11">Now below that we can see obviously green</p>
      <p begin="00:20:16.70" dur="00:00:02.41">with the green crumb rubber down to the Astroflect</p>
      <p begin="00:20:19.12" dur="00:00:01.17">with the black crumb rubber –</p>
      <p begin="00:20:20.50" dur="00:00:02.19">they all have the letter “e” after them.</p>
      <p begin="00:20:22.70" dur="00:00:01.53">So basically there was no difference</p>
      <p begin="00:20:24.30" dur="00:00:02.77">between the Astroflect with the black crumb rubber</p>
      <p begin="00:20:27.08" dur="00:00:02.27">and the green FieldTurf Duraspine</p>
      <p begin="00:20:29.36" dur="00:00:01.13">with the green crumb rubber.</p>
      <p begin="00:20:31.12" dur="00:00:01.65">So really, obviously there is a lot</p>
      <p begin="00:20:32.77" dur="00:00:01.51">of different statistical things going on here,</p>
      <p begin="00:20:34.29" dur="00:00:01.36">but what the bottom line is</p>
      <p begin="00:20:35.68" dur="00:00:03.15">all these different infill-fiber combinations –</p>
      <p begin="00:20:38.84" dur="00:00:02.64">even though we see some statistical differences,</p>
      <p begin="00:20:41.48" dur="00:00:02.85">there really isn’t that much of a difference.</p>
      <p begin="00:20:44.34" dur="00:00:02.00">The coolest mean surface temperature</p>
      <p begin="00:20:46.35" dur="00:00:01.70">was nearly 159 degrees</p>
      <p begin="00:20:48.05" dur="00:00:01.63">and the warmest was 171 –</p>
      <p begin="00:20:49.69" dur="00:00:02.27">we still have a very hot surface</p>
      <p begin="00:20:51.96" dur="00:00:04.03">obviously when we get 159 degrees.</p>
      <p begin="00:20:56.00" dur="00:00:01.60">So until we can cool the surface</p>
      <p begin="00:20:57.60" dur="00:00:03.30">of a standard green fiber-black crumb rubber mix</p>
      <p begin="00:21:00.91" dur="00:00:02.14">about 20 or 30 degrees,</p>
      <p begin="00:21:03.05" dur="00:00:01.86">we are really not getting to where we need to be.</p>
      <p begin="00:21:04.92" dur="00:00:01.26">We really need to drop these temperatures</p>
      <p begin="00:21:06.19" dur="00:00:02.24">significantly more than what we are seeing</p>
      <p begin="00:21:08.43" dur="00:00:02.89">with any of these infill or fiber technologies</p>
      <p begin="00:21:11.33" dur="00:00:02.59">that are only dropping the temperature a few degrees.</p>
      <p begin="00:21:15.80" dur="00:00:02.56">Another system to reduce the surface temperature</p>
      <p begin="00:21:18.36" dur="00:00:01.51">of synthetic turf and has been tried</p>
      <p begin="00:21:19.88" dur="00:00:01.74">and subsequently shown to be ineffective</p>
      <p begin="00:21:21.63" dur="00:00:02.62">has been the use of a sub-air system.</p>
      <p begin="00:21:24.25" dur="00:00:01.88">This is a system that is used primarily</p>
      <p begin="00:21:26.14" dur="00:00:02.48">in professional stadiums where we can either</p>
      <p begin="00:21:28.62" dur="00:00:01.80">blow air into the rootzone</p>
      <p begin="00:21:30.43" dur="00:00:02.23">or remove air out of the rootzone.</p>
      <p begin="00:21:34.10" dur="00:00:01.80">So here is a graphical representation</p>
      <p begin="00:21:35.91" dur="00:00:01.35">of what we are talking about here.</p>
      <p begin="00:21:37.73" dur="00:00:02.70">Basically pulling cool air into the rootzone</p>
      <p begin="00:21:40.43" dur="00:00:02.30">during the nighttime hours and then releasing</p>
      <p begin="00:21:42.74" dur="00:00:02.48">or blowing that cool air back up into the rootzone</p>
      <p begin="00:21:45.22" dur="00:00:01.64">during the daytime hours.</p>
      <p begin="00:21:47.16" dur="00:00:01.43">Of course as we just talked about,</p>
      <p begin="00:21:48.68" dur="00:00:01.54">this wasn’t an effective way</p>
      <p begin="00:21:50.53" dur="00:00:02.32">to cool the surface of the synthetic turf</p>
      <p begin="00:21:52.85" dur="00:00:02.41">but just another attempt at looking</p>
      <p begin="00:21:55.26" dur="00:00:02.27">at ways to combat this problem.</p>
      <p begin="00:21:59.06" dur="00:00:01.33">So as you can see we obviously</p>
      <p begin="00:22:00.39" dur="00:00:01.59">don’t have all of the answers yet</p>
      <p begin="00:22:01.98" dur="00:00:01.57">as to how to cool these surfaces,</p>
      <p begin="00:22:03.56" dur="00:00:01.60">but there are some things that can be done now</p>
      <p begin="00:22:05.17" dur="00:00:03.16">to limit the potential dangers to field users.</p>
      <p begin="00:22:08.69" dur="00:00:02.21">The first thing to do is practice timings.</p>
      <p begin="00:22:11.43" dur="00:00:01.81">Perhaps mornings and evenings</p>
      <p begin="00:22:13.24" dur="00:00:03.36">are the best time for field users to use these fields.</p>
      <p begin="00:22:16.61" dur="00:00:01.57">Now BYU has guidelines –</p>
      <p begin="00:22:18.29" dur="00:00:01.39">these fields are not to be used</p>
      <p begin="00:22:19.68" dur="00:00:02.89">when the surface temperature exceeds 120 degrees.</p>
      <p begin="00:22:23.16" dur="00:00:00.90">It is very important</p>
      <p begin="00:22:24.06" dur="00:00:02.57">to involve the athletic trainers in this process –</p>
      <p begin="00:22:26.63" dur="00:00:01.60">make sure that they are</p>
      <p begin="00:22:28.24" dur="00:00:01.25">monitoring the conditions of the field,</p>
      <p begin="00:22:29.50" dur="00:00:01.28">the surface temperature,</p>
      <p begin="00:22:30.78" dur="00:00:01.82">the conditions of the atmosphere –</p>
      <p begin="00:22:32.60" dur="00:00:01.36">whether it is a sunny, clear day –</p>
      <p begin="00:22:33.97" dur="00:00:01.06">we know that the surfaces</p>
      <p begin="00:22:35.03" dur="00:00:01.14">are going to heat up more quickly</p>
      <p begin="00:22:36.18" dur="00:00:01.02">and to a higher temperature,</p>
      <p begin="00:22:37.20" dur="00:00:01.93">making sure the players are monitored</p>
      <p begin="00:22:39.13" dur="00:00:03.10">for dehydration and other heat related illnesses.</p>
      <p begin="00:22:42.35" dur="00:00:02.51">And, obviously communication with coaches.</p>
      <p begin="00:22:44.96" dur="00:00:01.56">We want to make sure they know</p>
      <p begin="00:22:46.52" dur="00:00:01.53">and realize the dangers of practicing</p>
      <p begin="00:22:48.05" dur="00:00:01.86">during the peak heating hours of the day</p>
      <p begin="00:22:49.92" dur="00:00:02.08">on a synthetic turf field.</p>
      <p begin="00:22:53.39" dur="00:00:01.20">So where do we go from here?</p>
      <p begin="00:22:55.15" dur="00:00:02.16">Certainly this issue is one of the main things</p>
      <p begin="00:22:57.32" dur="00:00:00.93">that we are looking at</p>
      <p begin="00:22:58.25" dur="00:00:02.14">our Center for Sports Surface Research currently.</p>
      <p begin="00:23:01.16" dur="00:00:01.88">What can we do to modify the infill</p>
      <p begin="00:23:03.05" dur="00:00:01.70">to hold water for a longer period of time?</p>
      <p begin="00:23:04.89" dur="00:00:01.40">What can be done to the fibers</p>
      <p begin="00:23:06.30" dur="00:00:01.80">to reduce the surface temperature</p>
      <p begin="00:23:08.10" dur="00:00:01.40">by modifying reflectance?</p>
      <p begin="00:23:09.62" dur="00:00:01.46">These are the types of things</p>
      <p begin="00:23:11.09" dur="00:00:01.53">that we are working on on a daily basis</p>
      <p begin="00:23:12.62" dur="00:00:02.69">and we hope to have answers in the near future</p>
      <p begin="00:23:15.31" dur="00:00:02.32">to combat really the major problem</p>
      <p begin="00:23:17.64" dur="00:00:02.33">and the major health risk associated</p>
      <p begin="00:23:19.97" dur="00:00:01.34">with today’s synthetic turf.</p>
      <p begin="00:23:21.31" dur="00:00:01.86">As we have seen synthetic turf evolve</p>
      <p begin="00:23:23.18" dur="00:00:01.53">from the earlier generations,</p>
      <p begin="00:23:24.71" dur="00:00:01.42">a lot of the problems associated</p>
      <p begin="00:23:26.14" dur="00:00:01.39">with those earlier generations</p>
      <p begin="00:23:27.53" dur="00:00:01.57">have gone by the wayside,</p>
      <p begin="00:23:29.11" dur="00:00:02.48">but the one main issue that remains</p>
      <p begin="00:23:31.59" dur="00:00:02.18">is this issue of surface heat –</p>
      <p begin="00:23:33.91" dur="00:00:01.26">and that is something that we hope</p>
      <p begin="00:23:35.18" dur="00:00:02.06">to have the answer to in the near future.</p>
      <p begin="00:23:38.40" dur="00:00:01.51">I’d like to thank you for listening to</p>
      <p begin="00:23:39.92" dur="00:00:01.85">this edition of the SportsTurf Scoop.</p>
      <p begin="00:23:42.11" dur="00:00:02.18">For the most current and up to date information</p>
      <p begin="00:23:44.30" dur="00:00:01.96">about our Center for Sports Surface Research,</p>
      <p begin="00:23:46.26" dur="00:00:04.33">you can visit our Web site at ssrc.psu.edu,</p>
      <p begin="00:23:50.89" dur="00:00:01.13">“like” us on Facebook –</p>
      <p begin="00:23:52.19" dur="00:00:01.22">we try to keep that up to date</p>
      <p begin="00:23:53.41" dur="00:00:00.91">with the most current research</p>
      <p begin="00:23:54.32" dur="00:00:01.82">that we are doing as well as any research</p>
      <p begin="00:23:56.15" dur="00:00:01.56">related to the sportsturf industry,</p>
      <p begin="00:23:57.71" dur="00:00:03.60">and you can also follow us on Twitter @PSUsportsturf.</p>
      <p begin="00:24:01.45" dur="00:00:00.60">Thank you.</p>